Tuesday, December 24, 2019

Deepwater Horizon A Disaster Of Monstrous Proportions Essay

Deepwater Horizon: A Disaster of Monstrous Proportions On April 20, 2010 British Petroleum’s Deepwater Horizon offshore oil rig located forty miles off the coast of Louisiana exploded due to high pressure of methane gas seeping into the drilling riser and expanding. The explosion killed 11 men working on the rig, injured 17 other, and causing millions of gallons of crude oil to begin spilling into the ocean. This tragic accident has left many question like why did this happen? What could have been done to prevent it? and can we assure a disaster like this never happens again? In this essay we will look to answer these questions in painstaking detail. Let’s begin with the why did this happen? The answer to this question is quite simple†¦..money. In order to save on their bottom line British Petroleum did everything they could to build the Deepwater Horizon rig fast and cost efficient, and in doing so they made some very poor management decisions. For instance the ce menting of the rig was inadequate for a rig of its size, valves that were designed to too stop cement backflow did not close, pressure test were wrongly interpreted, and lastly a fail-safe seat bed on the wellhead failed to close after the explosion. All of this is a domino effect caused by poor management decisions looking out for their bottom line and not for adequately built and maintained oil rig that could have prevented this tragedy from happening. The reaction after the explosion and the oil spill wasShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesReview on failures, experts argued that learning from mistakes relies on several strategies, which include: 1. Heed pressure. High pressure often provokes faulty thinking. BP faced enormous pressure from cost overruns—roughly $1 million a day—in its deepwater oil explorations. This led its managers to miss warning signs that led to the catastrophic explosion in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010. Similar time and cost pressures precipitated the ill-fated Challenger and Columbia space shuttle launches. In highpressure

Monday, December 16, 2019

The Impact in Your Life Free Essays

* Please describe the impact your adversities have had on your life. When my sisters and I first came to the United States I had trouble understanding American English. Though we had been taught English in our school in the camp we were not prepared to learn in a completely English environment in a completely new culture. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact in Your Life or any similar topic only for you Order Now The transition was quite a challenge for us, not to mention starting well into the second half of the school year, but we pressed through and managed to get good grades. Everything has been completely new for me and my family and although we have received help, life here has been full of its own challenges. I sometimes become depressed when I am stuck at home do nothing. This new world has been especially challenging and complicated for my parents because they don’t understand or know how to speak English. They are learning, however, by taking classes. Currently, they are learning how to say all the food names in English. Another trial for us right now is the fact that my parents don’t work because they don’t know how to speak English and so it has been nearly impossible for them to find jobs and so support our family. When I think about all our challenges, new and old, I usually became frustrated and depressed even though I can understand and speak English well, but when I think about my parents and the fact that they don’t even understand what everyone else here is saying, I wonder how they must feel. Sometimes I listen to the conversation between my mom and dad about being very depressed and worried. Being a daughter I try to make them feel better by serving as an interpreter for them so that can function wherever they want to go. We also try to take them to meet other people who are also from Nepal so that they can share their feelings and try to find relief in this new country. * How to cite The Impact in Your Life, Essay examples

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Reflection in Practice free essay sample

Making Practice-Based Learning work Reflection on PRACTICE A resource commissioned by the Making Practice Based Learning Work project, an educational development project funded through FDTL Phase 4 Project Number 174/02 and produced by staff from the University of Ulster. www. practicebasedlearning. org Author Patricia McClure School of Health Sciences, University of Ulster www. practicebasedlearning. org contents Reflection on Practice 02 The Role of Reflective Practice 03 Time for Reflection 05 Pre-requisites for Effective Reflection and Supervision 09 The Process of a Supervision Session 11 Adopting a Mentoring Approach 12 Tensions and Anxieties in Practice Placement Learning for Students Practice Educators 15 Appendix 1 16 Appendix 2 17 References 18 Reflection on Practice Introduction 01 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Introduction This resource tool has been devised to; †¢ inform practice educators about the importance of reflective practice †¢ prepare practice educators for their role as facilitators in students/learners’ development of reflective practice skills †¢ identify strategies to facilitate students/learners’ to reflect during supervision sessions †¢ provide guidelines for the use of reflective diaries during practice placements. www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE The Role of Reflective Practice The general aim of all placements is to promote clinical reasoning and analytical and evaluative abilities in students through reflective practice. Professional bodies incorporate the benefits of applying reflective practice for both students and health professionals in their learning strategies. The importance of developing professional practice and of the role of supervision to ensure high quality standards of care is emphasised in such documents as †A Vision for the Future† (Department of Health 1993). Reflective practice is not a new concept – Boud, Keogh and Walker (1985) stated 20 years ago that it features the individual and his or her experiences, leading to a new conceptual perspective or understanding. They included the element of learning, as well as involvement of the self, to define reflective practice: â€Å"Reflection is a forum of response of the learner to experience† (Boud et al. 1985, page18). Johns and Freshwater (1998) also described the value of reflective practice as a means of learning. There is no doubt that â€Å"reflection† is a complex concept that has defied consensus on definition although some commonalities exist. It involves the self and is triggered by questioning of actions, values and beliefs. An understanding of the purpose of reflective practice and its components can be gained by considering some of the definitions provided in the literature. A few useful definitions include the following: â€Å"Reflection is a process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning about practice† (Reid, 1993 p. 305). â€Å"Reflective practice is something more than thoughtful practice. It is that form of practice that seeks to problematise many situations of professional performance so that they can become potential learning situations and Johns describes critical reflection as â€Å" a window through which the practitioner can view and focus self within the context of his/her own lived experience in ways that enable him/her to confront, understand and work towards resolving the contradictions within his/her practice between what is desirable and actual practice† (Johns 2000:34). To maximise learning through critical reflection we need to contextually locate ourselves within the experience and explore available theory, knowledge and experience to understand the experience in different ways. Thus Boyd Fales (1983 p. 100) claim that critical reflection â€Å"is the core difference between whether a person repeats the same experience several times becoming highly proficient at one behaviour, or learns from experience in such a way that he or she is cognitively or affectively changed†. Critical reflection is thus viewed as transformational learning which according to Baumgartner (2001) can happen either gradually or from a sudden or critical incident and alter the way people see themselves and their world. Daloz (1999) advocated the concept of development. He believes in the role of a mentor in guiding the learner on a journey that is affected by their social environment including family dynamics and social class. Daloz (2000 p18) suggests that there are four important conditions in facilitating development which are; Reflection on Practice What is reflective practice? â€Å"the presence of the other, reflective discourse, a mentoring community and opportunities for committed action. † Schon (1983) suggests that we can engage in reflection in one of two ways; either by ‘reflecting on action’, after the experience, or by ‘reflecting in action’, during the experience. The latter is a more advanced skill while the former is the process more likely to be used when teaching student healthcare professionals. so the practitioners can continue to learn, grow and develop in and through practice† (Jarvis, 1992 p. 180). 03 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE The Role of Reflective Practice Becoming A Reflective Practitioner will thus complete the learning cycle and start over again with a view to refining his/her actions. This is an ongoing According to the educator Professor David Boud, effective process, so we will never achieve perfection. learning will not occur unless you reflect. To do this, you always find other ways of doing things based on our must think of a particular moment in time, ponder over it, learning from previous experiences. We will go back through it and only then will you gain new insights into different aspects of that situation. According to Kolb Building up experience is a gradual process. The student (1984) reflecting is an essential element of learning. This is will develop reflective abilities during the course of their shown through an experiential learning cycle illustrated learning on placement. Reflection should initially develop in below. safe environments where mistakes are tolerated. He/she can then reflect and discuss the decisions that were made Kolb’s Learning Cycle during their supervision sessions with their practice educator. Reflection should become integral to these sessions. Concrete Experience Concerned with something that has happened to you or that you have done. Concerned with adopting your new ideas into practice. When reflecting-on-action, the first step in the process is the description of the incident and it is advisable that student health care practitioners keep a reflective diary (as memory cannot be relied upon for the detail of events) in Reflective which they record details of incidents that either troubled or Concerned with reviewing the event or experience in your mind and exploring what you did and how you, and others felt about it. pleased them, recording details as soon after the event as Active Experimentation Concerned with trying out the new ideas as a result of the learning from earlier experience and reflection. Who is involved in practice education? possible. Much attention has been given to the value of recording Leaving aside for the moment the position of service events and experiences in written form, particularly through users themselves, Abstract the main parties involved in the use of reflective diaries and journals (Zubbrizarreta Concerned students, practice education with developing practitioners acting 1999 and Tryssenaar 1995). The exercise of diary writing as managers, promotes both the qualities required for reflection, ie. open- ideas about ways of doing professional bodies, Strategic Health Authorities and mindedness and motivation and also the skills ie. self- Conceptualistation an understanding of what practice happened by seeking more educators, service information and forming new things in the future. the university. awareness; description and observation; critical analysis and problem-solving; and synthesis and evaluation (Richardson Maltby, 1995). If you follow this cycle in a clockwise direction with your student, you will see that after having had an experience the student has to reflect on what he/she saw or did, by reviewing the whole situation in his/her mind. This may be assisted by: looking at it on film, discussing it with others, thinking abstractly about the event for a while, or seeking advice or further information. Eventually the student will probably come up with ideas for approaching the situation differently next time. He/she will then try out their ideas to see if they are effective. He/she www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Time for Relection For guidance on keeping a reflective diary, please see below Getting Started: Keeping a Reflective Diary Reflective Questions. †¢ Set aside time for writing †¢ Allow time for the sifting of thoughts and ideas †¢ Do not worry about style, presentation Time For Reflection †¢ that it becomes part of your and the student’s way of Remember that the aim is to facilitate reflection on practice You as a practice educator must make time for reflection so †¢ Find evidence to back-up your thoughts : what evidence do I have for what I have just written? working. Reflection is an integral part of practice and students need time to develop this skill. It is not a process that can be rushed, but neither is it a process that has to Begin by asking: occur at a particular time. Thus, the student can reflect on †¢ How do I see my role as a healthcare professional(purposes and intentions)? his/her journey to and from placement, or between visits to patients/clients or during lunch break. It is a good idea to †¢ Why did I become a healthcare professional? encourage the student to sum up each day with a reflective †¢ What kind of healthcare professional/practitioner do I think I am? doing it. If the student knows that you expect them to †¢ reflect on their practice in this structured way, they will be †¢ What values do I believe in? How do I demonstrate that I am practising in a more likely to keep and benefit from their reflective diary. way that is consistent with professional values You may also set them an example by keeping a reflective and codes of conduct? diary of your own professional practice or indeed your experiences as a practice educator, thus demonstrating Exercise; that learning is always ongoing! Reflective Questions Exercise; The following is a set of questions that could be used to Keeping A Reflective Diary assist your thinking, perhaps when you are writing up your reflections on practice in a diary or when you are thinking Each individual will have a different way of keeping a back over an experience and discussing it with your reflective diary. There are, however, some general points to practice educator. Reflection on Practice comment in his/her diary, spending only a few minutes reinforce to learners about it. †¢ It should be: What was I aiming for when I did that? †¢ What exactly did I do? How would I describe it †¢ A record which is useful to you †¢ A cue to memory †¢ Why did I choose that particular action? †¢ Honestly written †¢ What theories/models/research informed my †¢ Enjoyable to you in its production precisely? practice? †¢ It can be used: What was I trying to achieve? †¢ What did I do next? †¢ To describe key events in your practice †¢ What were the reasons for doing that? †¢ To evaluate key events in your practice †¢ How successful was it? †¢ To engage in focused evaluation of recurring †¢ What criteria am I using to judge success? themes †¢ What alternatives were there? †¢ Reflect on what may have become habitual †¢ Could I have dealt with the situation any better? †¢ Develop and appraise action taken †¢ How would I do it differently next time? 05 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Time for Relection †¢ What do I feel about the whole experience? weeks. I found that using a reflective diary was an excellent †¢ What knowledge/values/skills were way to clear my mind and ensure a positive, fresh start the demonstrated? following day. Make time- it’s worth it! †¢ How did the client feel about it? †¢ How do I know the client felt like that? Everyone feels under pressure at some point whilst on †¢ What sense can I make of this in the light of my placement, especially if you are the only student at a past experience? placement centre. At the end of a stressful and demanding †¢ Has this changed the way in which I will do things day it is a relief to be able to unload the burdens of the day in the future? on the pages of your reflective diary before they build up and become blown out of proportion. Often, when you Please see students’ accounts of their experiences come to look at the problems you have noted at a later of keeping a reflective diary during practice date, they are not as bad as they seemed at the time, or placements in the Case Studies outlined below (Case you have found ways of overcoming these difficulties. I was Studies 1-3). on my own for both my second year placements and regret that I did not make use of a reflective diary at this time. Case Study 1 They would have provided a release for pent up anxiety and I can remember sitting in my second year placement stress, and perhaps improved my performance throughout preparation classes, being advised of the benefits of placement. keeping a reflective diary and thinking†¦Ã¢â‚¬ what a waste of time! †. In fact, this was a very grave mistake; when will I What is often foremost in a student’s mind during learn that lecturers know what they are talking about?! I placement is the grade they will be awarded. However, didn’t use a reflective diary on either of my second year when it comes to completing half-way and final reports, not placements. At that time I thought the most important thing everyone has the confidence to argue their own case in was to throw my all into seeing through my placement and terms of their accomplishments and the marks they feel not waste time on keeping a diary. It wasn’t until my fourth entitled to. I myself tended to be a quiet student, often year practice educator encouraged me to spend some unaware of my achievements and always lacking the time recording my thoughts at the end of the day that I confidence to express these in the hope of gaining realised what I had previously been missing out on. recognition. This is where keeping a reflective diary was of greatest benefit to me; by noting my capabilities, strengths If you are anything like me, with university work piling up, a and daily accomplishments every day in my reflective diary part-time job, family commitments and an all-important I had the evidence I needed to chart a definite upward social life, you may be thinking ‘I don’t have time’. In actual progression in skills throughout the placement. Although fact, making fifteen minutes available to note a few things my practice educators never asked to see my reflective that have happened throughout the day is very therapeutic. diary, I often took it to supervision and allowed them to read I found that taking a little time out every evening to entries I thought to be important. By doing so, I not only complete my reflective diary helped me to get the day’s boosted my own self-esteem and confidence, but I also events in perspective, to focus on any achievements or provided my practice educator with evidence of my progress I had made that day and also things I had learned developing clinical reflection and skill acquisition. I would need to improve on. One method I found to be of great benefit was to make a special note at the end of each day’s entry; this was usually something I felt I had done well, or a goal I hoped to achieve throughout the following www. practicebasedlearning. org PRACTICE EDUCATION Time for Relection A final note†¦ I spent about 10-15minutes at the end of each day †¢ Reflective diaries are a private record of experiences completing my diary, and I drew up a simple outline on the throughout placement and so it is important to use them to computer which my practice educators kept as a template report thoughts, feelings and opinions rather than merely for future students. I used a text box with ‘date’ and ‘what the factual events of the day. Only by reporting personal I saw today’ as titles and used a page for each day. feelings following an event can experiences be built upon and improved. I really would recommend keeping a reflective diary throughout placement as it helps you to focus your †¢ It is important to use your reflective diary to record thoughts about the day and keep note of important things positive experiences and achievements as well as the not to remember. It is also a useful resource to look back on so positive ones. A balanced view of what has taken place and remember; is essential. how different conditions presented in patients; how the OT process was carried out with these patients; how effective that process was; placement, I kept my reflective diary and think of it to be, what needed to be improved and new/other perspectives to some extent, rather like a personal ‘Record of on the situation. Achievement’. Case Study 3 Case Study 2 If I am being completely honest, I would have to admit that I did not make use of reflective diaries during my 2nd year before I went on my first practice placement I could not see placements, and now as a 4th year student looking back, I what the benefit of keeping a reflective diary would be. can see how it would have been beneficial for me to have However, I did keep a diary from day one. The first couple kept a reflective diary at that time. During my 4th year of days were really reflections of how I was feeling, what I placements I kept a reflective diary and found it very useful thought of the place, the people, etc. As time progressed at the time. It is also a useful resource that I will be able to I started to reflect more on practice – what had gone well look back upon in my future practice. and what had not. It is strange but when I started to write down what had happened each day I was able to analyse My practice educator at the time advised me to complete the events more clearly. I was able to pinpoint possible this diary, and gave me some basic ideas of the type of factors that had contributed to the outcomes in intervention content to include in it. I used the reflective diary as a tool that had been achieved. Some of the factors were that I for recording the type of things I had done during that day. was a novice others were that on occasions more This included the type of patients I had seen and their preparation was required. conditions, and how these conditions presented. Also any cataloguing events in the diary was that I could look back assessments I may have seen being used that day, or may Reflection on Practice †¢ Reflective diaries are not just important during over the previous weeks and see how I had improved. One of the benefits of have carried out myself, or any treatment I may have carried out/observed, and also any administration and form It is important to write up the diary everyday – it doesn’t completion that I may have done. Any visits carried out take long to do. Trying to document events that happened were also noted and other general notes and points to two or three days previously is difficult and important facets remember as well. Any particular feelings I may have had can be forgotten. Also make diary entries on placements regarding activities throughout the day could also be noted. that may not be going as smoothly as you had hoped for. It helps to make sense of where things may be going wrong. 07 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Time for Relection Keeping the diary is a useful tool for completing your end checklist. There should be considerable space for of placement evaluation. You can flick back through it and discussion and all issues must be addressed in a see what you have been doing over the weeks. It is then constructive way. Bear in mind that there are many ways easy to transfer this information to the evaluation sheet. of developing reflection as a crucial skill for practice. The diary is also useful when you come to fill in job application forms! Again you can scan the diary and select For further information concerning levels of reflecting and relevant information that can be matched with essential models of reflection refer to Alsop and Ryan (1996), Making and desirable criteria in the job specification. the Most of Fieldwork Education, chapter 15. In conclusion, keep your reflective diary up to date. It is a The practice placement is the learning environment in valuable tool during placement and long after placements which students from the healthcare professions realise their are completed. goals of integrating theory with the realities of practice and where they experience and absorb the contradictions and Recording experiences in reflective diaries has been conflicts of professional practice. It should be within the incorporated into many healthcare professional courses context of the supervisory relationship that students are however it is important to note that while individuals can assisted to reflect upon and understand their experiences complete stages of their reflective process model on their and where they are encouraged to face contradictions and own â€Å"there is a limit to what each of us can achieve inconsistencies within themselves and between themselves unaided†(Boud, Keogh Walker, 1985 p. 36). Errington and and other aspects of the practice environment. Therefore, Robertson (1998) emphasised the value of dialogue after the supervisory relationship is pivotal in assisting the studying how OT practice changed as a result of reflective emergent professional identity of the student/learner as a practice in a group forum where practitioners were given reflective practitioner. the opportunity to articulate ideas. Supervision Reflective practice could be implemented and encouraged in a group setting by practitioners and/or students. The relationship between the concepts of clinical Alternatively it can be implemented within a one-to-one supervision and reflective practice can be viewed in two forum such as formal supervision. When thinking about the ways. Firstly, clinical supervision can be seen as a purpose of clinical supervision, it is clear that reflection and legitimate tool in which practitioners engage in reflection. supervision are inextricably linked(Racey, 2005). Alternatively, reflection can be seen as an essential component of supervision. Creating A Reflective Context for the Learner Students should be given feedback informally throughout Reflection is an essential element of learning. For reflection the placement, preferably on a daily basis. Students should to be used to advantage during practice placement, much also have formal supervision once per week. This should will depend on the kind of experience that you as a practice be arranged at a specific time when the practice educator educator have had in developing an understanding of and and the student have time and privacy to discuss the using reflective skills. Reflection is relatively new and many learning experiences of the previous week and decide on healthcare professionals have not yet been exposed to or action plans for the following week. had experience in reflection themselves. Guard against using the framework as if it were a set of instructions or a www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Pre-requisites for Effective Reflection and Supervision Key stages of the reflective process †¢ Informal Feedback an awareness of uncomfortable feelings and thoughts; Feedback, when given regularly and constructively, †¢ critical analysis, including attending to feelings; stimulates learning. It may be defined as a form of non- †¢ development of a new perspective on the situation. judgemental communication that can be both formal and informal (Henry, 1985). Informal discussions may take place Pre-requisites for effective reflection and supervision at any time, sometimes several times a day. They are part of the general process of enabling students to integrate Pre-requisites for effective supervision and reflective their educational needs with service delivery ensuring that practice include honesty and openness. Gillings (2000) they understand practice (Alsop and Ryan, 1996). These states that a commitment to self-enquiry and a readiness discussions usually take place before, during and/or after a to change practice are important if the individual is to get treatment intervention with a client. Feedback usually takes the most out of the process. place informally between sessions during refreshment breaks or while travelling between appointments. Many authors identify self-awareness as essential to the Feedback should have the following characteristics: be well informed/appraised of his/her own character, including beliefs and values. Many models of reflective †¢ It should be sufficient. practice also include self-awareness and questioning of †¢ It should be specific. beliefs, values and attitudes. †¢ It should be timely. †¢ It should be regular. The last stage of many models of reflection relates to a †¢ It should be encouraging. willingness to change practice, where new conceptual †¢ It should be relevant. perspectives are reached in order to inform practice. If the †¢ It should be reciprocal. learner is not willing to change practice he/she will not gain †¢ It should not be unexpected by students. the potential benefits from the process in terms of practice †¢ It should include recommendations for improvement. development, advances will not be made and professional practice will not evolve. †¢ It should be provided while the behaviour is still Many of the skills identified as essential for a good †¢ It should relate to behaviours that are remediable. supervisor are required by the practice educator to guide †¢ Reflection on Practice reflective process. This implies that the individual needs to It should deal with specific problems rather fresh in the students memory. than generalisations. the reflective practitioner. A willingness to commit time to the process and to listen to the learner helps foster a †¢ †¢ There are many similarities between reflective practice and It should deal with decisions and actions rather than assumed intentions or interpretations. relationship that can bring challenging issues to the fore. It should be based on information which is objective by first hand observation. supervision, therefore learners can make effective use of reflective practice as a learning tool within the context of supervision. It is however important that the learner and the practice educator are committed to the process and have a shared understanding of the process to make the experience effective. 09 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Pre-requisites for Effective Reflection and Supervision Formal Supervision REFLECTING ON PRACTICE STUDENT SUPERVISION FORM Formal supervision, by contrast, should occur regularly at prearranged times in a quiet environment free from the To Be Competed Weekly. distractions of service delivery. Supervision sessions should last about one hour and form an essential feature of the Date: ___________________ Student: placement and supervisory process. Alsop and Ryan (1996) state that formal supervision should be used for four What has gone well? What has not gone well? main purposes: 1. reflection, feedback on and dialogue about practice; 2. review of the achievement of learning goals; 3. revision of the learning contract, until the next supervision session; 4. exploration of practice issues to a deeper level of understanding. What does the student see What does the practice as his/her learning needs? educator see as the student’s learning needs? Therefore, formal supervision is essentially a time for exploring practice, a time for learning, where the real objective is facilitating the students growth. Practice educators must therefore ensure that they acknowledge the importance of these sessions and allocate appropriate time for them. Both the practice educator and the student need to What has the student learnt from these experiences. What will be done differently? What does the practice educator feel the student could have learnt? What could be done differently or improved? prepare well for the formal supervision sessions. The student needs to be encouraged to think through selected experiences, reviewing them in his/her mind, so that he/she learns from what happened. The practice educator may See Appendix 1 for copy of form. guide the discussion, prompting the student and probing his/her knowledge and understanding, but essentially the The following outline of the process of a formal supervision student must do the work. Please see the Reflecting on session summarises how learners should prepare for, Practice Student Supervision Form provided within this participate in and learn from the supervision session. resource as an example of a tool designed to assist students in developing reflective skills. The student should complete this form prior to the supervision session and it can serve as a stimulus for discussion within the session. www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE The Process of a Supervision Session The Process of a Supervision Session needs clearly and honestly with the practice educator. Open discussion allows a practice educator to gain an Prior to the supervision session the student/learner should: accurate assessment of the level of development at which the student is functioning. review his/her learning contract review the work undertaken to date Feedback, both informal and formal, from a practice identify and note his/her achievements during educator is an essential feature of supervision but the that week student must also take responsibility for participating review the Universitys assessment form actively in the supervisory process and for monitoring identify his/her further learning needs his/her own performance in practice. Adopting a mentoring note any concerns he/she has and topics for partnership can be an effective way of achieving this. discussion in supervision make an agenda. agree the agenda with the practice educator take initiative and participate equally in the discussion review his/her performance to date, expressing both strengths and limitations explore any issues that have given him/her special cause for concern specify particular learning needs which he/she has identified and prioritise them establish which needs might be met and how ensure that the learning contract is updated give his/her practice educator feedback on the Reflection on Practice During the supervision session the student/learner should: strengths and limitations of feedback agree a course of action for the next few days clarify the practice educator’s and his/her own responsibilities in the action plan After the supervision session the student/learner should: review the session make summative notes of the session prepare to fulfil the action plan. Supervision is a multi-faceted concept. It is an educational process which relies on effective relationships and open communication between the student and the practice educator. Good communication enables a student to feel comfortable about discussing strengths, limitations and 11 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Adopting a Mentoring Approach As part of the mentoring relationship, sessions or meetings Adopting a Mentoring Approach occur which provide an explicit arena for the learner to The term mentoring/mentorship is interpreted in different articulate what has been occurring in both their ways groups, professional and personal life (Clutterbuck, 1998; particularly with reference to nursing where the term Megginson Clutterbuck 1997). These discussions allow mentorship refers to a very specific role but for the the learner to link actual experiences and the attainment of purposes of this project we are suggesting that practice particular skills and/or knowledge. In doing this, the learner educators may wish to adopt a mentoring approach with arguably becomes more acutely in tune with the inherent their students/learners rather than taking on the full role of complexities of ‘real’ experiences and begins to perceive being a mentor. and understand situations with heightened awareness across the healthcare professional (Sayce et al, 2002). Mentoring can be characterised in numerous ways but two leading scholars on the subject, namely David Megginson There is much debate in the literature as to whether an and David Clutterbuck, (1997) have defined the concept effective mentoring relationship can exist when the mentor as: is in a position of authority over the mentee. Some theorists think that a practice educator may be able to adopt the â€Å"Off-line help by one person to another in making mentoring role but if you feel that you can’t, you should significant transitions in knowledge, work or re- identify a colleague within your practice setting who might thinking† (1997 : 13) undertake this role. The above definition raises some important issues about What is Mentoring? practice-based roles and the manner in which the transfer of skills and knowledge occurs between an experienced Mentoring is essentially about helping people to develop practitioner – the mentor, and a student – the learner. more effectively. It is a relationship designed to build Firstly, there is the issue of a mentorship being an â€Å"off-line† confidence and help the learner take an increasing initiative relationship. for his/her own development . It is most effective that someone who is assuming a mentorship role not be the line manager of the Manchester Metropolitan University individual they are mentoring, as the line association has the undeniable pressure for immediate results (Clutterbuck, Mentoring is a professional relationship within an 1998, Megginson Clutterbuck, 1997). In contrast the organisation in which an experienced member of staff mentoring relationship tends more towards giving time and provides support and guidance to assist in the integration space for taking a wider view of a situation where and career development of a new member of staff†. significant transitions are taking place. Mentoring is not University of Salford about merely sponsoring another person’s career, but more explicitly focussed on a deeper learning or understanding Benefits of introducing a mentoring approach in of complex situations (Butterworth, 1998; Clutterbuck, practice education: 1998). In addition, issues of trust are paramount to the â€Å"development† of the learner and their acquisition of †¢ increased skills and knowledge; it is often difficult for an reflective practice in the context of leading to action and development individual in a position of judgement, such as a practice †¢ integration of learning into the work place educator, to build a necessary level of trust with the learner. †¢ support for mentees/learners in dealing with the pressures of work www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Adopting a Mentoring Approach †¢ encouragement with the course Benefits to the mentor: †¢ identification of common problems and successes †¢ makes it necessary to question what we are doing †¢ individual ownership of the learning process †¢ can learn from mentees is increased †¢ challenging relationship †¢ encourages reflective practice Adopting a mentoring approach with a learner or a student †¢ adds to own personal and professional judgement during practice placement provides the following benefits †¢ aid to other aspects of job eg appraisal skills for the mentee and the mentor. †¢ involvement with new courses †¢ positive effects of being involved in the professional development of colleagues Benefits to the mentee: †¢ practical application of knowledge †¢ †¢ personal development in terms of greater †¢ development of operational skills wouldnt otherwise have found the time to air †¢ additional insights into the processes of teaching and learning (because seen from a different confidence and inter-personal skills viewpoint) intellectual development through the sharpening of analytical abilities †¢ †¢ opportunity to examine the basis of own knowledge gaining insight into own performance (and the †¢ a fresh perspective on ideas for current and future projects adequacy thereof) †¢ overcomes isolation/insularity †¢ enhances organisational reputation †¢ personal support mechanism †¢ improved job satisfaction †¢ provides a second opinion †¢ increased peer recognition †¢ develops networks †¢ increased understanding of learning needs †¢ advice and encouragement †¢ turning mistakes to profit †¢ exchange of ideas, focus attention on how ideas †¢ expansion of networks agree and differ †¢ provides self-confidence in professional approach †¢ opportunity to analyse learning outcomes †¢ professional development The role of the mentor There are two distinct roles that mentors play; one in †¢ helps newcomers settle in more quickly relation to career functions and the other more concerned †¢ helps to reflect and examine the principles with the needs, thoughts and feelings of the individual informing practice mentee. It would be almost impossible for any one person learning to cope with the formal and informal Reflection on Practice †¢ opportunity to discuss professional issues that to have the ideal personality to fulfil all the roles that a †¢ structure of the organisation mentor may be required to perform, or indeed to possess †¢ career advice and advancement the vast range of skills that could be attributed to the †¢ watching and learning from the strategies of others perfect mentor. The aim of this checklist is to show some †¢ learning to take calculated risks of the roles that mentors have taken on in similar mentoring †¢ solving and learning from problems (rather than programmes. Above all the mentor should be flexible and causing concern) responsive to the needs of the mentee. †¢ handling people 13 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Adopting a Mentoring Approach The role of the mentor might include undertaking the following roles and tasks: †¢ An advisor: offering support and guidance †¢ Providing an objective viewpoint, a stable point of reference †¢ An observer: of treatment sessions, preparation etc †¢ A sounding board: someone to bounce new ideas around with and to generate new ideas †¢ Providing an opportunity to reflect †¢ A counsellor: a sympathetic, non judgemental ear †¢ A problem solver: to discuss and †¢ A questioner: someone who will challenge ideas †¢ A supporter: providing encouragement, consider problems reassurance, motivation and building confidence †¢ Providing feedback †¢ A coach †¢ A good listener †¢ A helper in setting standards †¢ A task setter †¢ An information source/resource †¢ A networker, friend and ally. www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Tensions and Anxieties in Practice Placement Learning for Students Practice Educators Tensions and Anxieties in Practice Placement Quality supervision is a balance between support for the Learning for Students Practice Educators student in the new environment and new role, and appropriate challenge. Practice placements are generally very enjoyable aspects of the educational programme for the majority of students A positive student-practice educator relationship is one and their practice educators. However it must be that is: acknowledged that during the periods of practice based learning the students often experience anxiety-provoking †¢ open; situations and this is sometimes also the case for the †¢ caring; practice educators (when dealing with the failing student). †¢ mutually meets each others needs; Although anxiety may be a positive factor that enhances †¢ honest; performance, too much anxiety can inhibit student learning †¢ tolerant; and and supervisor effectiveness. †¢ respectful of each other. Student anxieties are centred around fitting into a new Dealing with Negative Feedback educator, adapting to the as yet undefined new role, taking Some students who are with practice educators who responsibility for patient/client progress, coping with the constantly criticise them, are unapproachable and feeling of being constantly observed and of course passing unsupportive, feel afraid and tense. The students the assessment. performance continues to decline in this environment. These students are unable to ask for the assistance they so Practice educators can help students deal with the desperately need and are in constant fear of making anxieties of the practice environment by: mistakes. †¢ supporting students through the different stages Some ideas for how practice educators should deal with of the practice placement; problems once they have been identified: †¢ providing a supportive learning environment; †¢ encouraging students to use more effective †¢ coping behaviour; create an accepting environment in which Reflection on Practice unknown environment, getting on with the practice learning can take place; †¢ role modelling appropriate professional behaviour; †¢ providing clear and realistic expectations; knowledge base, skills, attitudes or behaviours as †¢ giving honest feedback which provides clear soon as they are identified; †¢ communicate any problems about the students guidelines for improved performance; and †¢ †¢ document feedback and give the student a copy; using learning contracts. †¢ share your concern with the student and the university tutor; †¢ establish measurable objectives for change that †¢ remember no matter how appropriate the are explicit, overt and observable; and supervision, there are some students who need more time to develop competency. 15 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Appendix 1 Reflection on Practice: Student Supervision Form To Be Competed Weekly. Date: ___________________ Student: What has gone well? What has not gone well? What does the student see as his/her learning needs? What does the practice educator see as the student’s learning needs? What has the student learnt from these experiences. What will be done differently? What does the practice educator feel the student could have learnt? What could be done differently or improved? www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE Appendix 2 Supervision Session; Action Plan An Introduction to Practice Education Action Agreed Practice Educator; Action Agreed Student; Signed.. Date Signed.. Date 17 REFLECTION ON PRACTICE References REFERENCES Alsop A Ryan S (1996) Making the most of fieldwork Gillings B (2000) Clinical supervision in reflective practice education: A practical approach. Stanley Thornes, cited in Burns S Bulman C, Reflective practice in nursing. Cheltenham. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Baumgartner LM (2001) An update on transformational Jarvis P (1992) Reflective practice and nursing. Nurse learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education Today, 12, 174-181. Education. No89:15-22. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Johns C Freshwater D (1998) Transforming nursing Boud D, Keogh R Walker D (1985) Reflection: turning through reflective practice. Blackwell Science, London. experience into learning. Kogan Page, London. Johns C (2000) Becoming a reflective practitioner. Boyd E Fales A (1983) reflective learning: the key to learning from experience. Journal of Blackwell Science, Oxford. Humanistic Psychology, 23 (2): 99-117 Kolb DA (1984) experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Prentice Hall, New Butterworth, T. , Faugier, J. , and Burnard, P. , (eds) (1998) Jersey. Clinical Supervision and Mentorship in Nursing (2nd ed). Stanley Thornes, Cheltenham Megginson, D. , Clutterbuck, D. (eds) (1997). Mentoring in Action: A Practical Guide for Managers. Kogan Page, Clutterbuck, D. (1998) Learning Alliances: Tapping into London. Talent. Institute of Personnel and Development, London. Racey A (2005) Using reflective practice as a learning tool Daloz LA (1999) Mentor: Guiding the journey of adult in clinical supervision. Therapy Weekly April 14 learners. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Reid B (1993) ‘But We’re Doing it Already! ’ Exploring a Daloz LA (2000) Transformative learning for the common Response to the Concept of Reflective Practice in Order to good. Cited in Chapter 4 Mezirow J and associates(eds) Improve its Facilitation, Nurse Education Today, 13: 305- Learning as transformation: Critical perspectives on a 309. theory in progress. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Richardson G Maltby H (1995) reflection on practice: Department of Health (1993), A Vision for the future: the enhancing student learning. Journal of Advanced Nursing. nursing midwifery and health visiting contribution to health 22:235-242. and healthcare. HMSO, London. Sayce, S. , Lewis, A. , Swann, P. , Squib, B. , (2002) Work Errington E Robertson L (1998) Promoting staff Based Learning for the Built Environment: A Literature development in Occupational Therapy. British Journal of Review. Occupational Therapy 61(11), 497-503. Schon D (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. Basic Books, London. www. practicebasedlearning. org REFLECTION ON PRACTICE References Tryssenaar J (1999) Interactive journals: an educational strategy to promote reflection. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 49 (7), 695-702. Zubrizarreta J (1999) Teaching portfolios: an effective strategy for faculty development in occupational therapy. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 53(1), 51-55. USEFUL TEXTS Boud D. Keogh R. Walker D. (1985) Reflection: Turning experience into learning. Kogan Page, London. Ghaye T Lillyman S (1997) Learning Journals Critical Reflective practice for Healthcare professionals, Mark Allen, Salisbury.. Ghaye T Lillyman S (2000) Reflection: Principles and Practice for Healthcare Professionals. Quay Books, Dinton. Jasper M (2003) beginning Reflective Practice. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham. Moon J (1999) Reflection in Learning Professional Development. Kogan Page, London. Reflection on Practice Incidents: Moon J (1999) learning Journals: A Handbook for Academics, Students and Professional Development. Kogan Page, London. Redmond B (2004) reflection in Action: Developing reflective practice in health and social care services. Ashgate Publications, Aldershot. Rolfe G Freshwater D Jasper M (2001) Critical Reflection for Nursing and the Helping Professions: a user’s guide. Palgrave Macmillan, London. Schon D (1983) The Reflective Practitioner. Basic Books, New York. 19 PROJECT AIMS The Project aims to make practitioners more effective at supporting supervising students in the workplace across a range of healthcare disciplines. The professions involved in the project are: †¢ Dietetics †¢ Nursing †¢ Occupational Therapy †¢ Physiotherapy †¢ Radiography The principal questions to be addressed in this project are: †¢ What constitutes effective practice in placement education? †¢ How can effective practice be implemented at organisational, professional and practitioner levels so as to maximise student learning on placement? †¢ How can this good practice be developed and embedded in the contexts of health and social care within a multicultural workforce? Project Administrator Telephone: 028 90 368 458 www. practicebasedlearning. org

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The UK Banking Practice that led to financial crisis

Table of Contents Introduction Organizational context Literature review Sample Methods Constrains, limitation and ethical issues References Introduction The issue of the global crisis is of great importance to business management and aspects of finance in any country. Crisis of the magnitude that was experienced is a real threat to the economy of any country and it is imperative for people to learn as much as they can to avoid the circumstance that lead to the crisis.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The UK Banking Practice that led to financial crisis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In The UK the financial crisis was less hard hitting than it was in the USA. The crisis is attributed to the mortgage business and chiefly to the lending services of banks. The culprit was banking practices that were not adequately regulated and not well adapted to changes. As a result, when the problems started arising it was too late to make any real changes. The government has tried its best to cushion the economy and has been successful in getting things back to normal little by little. It is only when the banking problems that led to the crisis are understood that measures against such a future problem can be anticipated and prevented. In the UK the crisis affected businesses as well as individuals. With a sluggish economy many consumers felt the pinch in spending and as a result, the economy suffered even more as spending became limited. Organizational context The research will be carried out in the organizational context of policies that govern the banking industry. This will reveal more directly the role that banks play and examine whether the policies facilitated in creation of the crisis. When the crisis was a phenomenon of banks in general it follows that there are certain characteristics of their practices that lent themselves to the crisis. Literature review According to Demirguc-Kunt and Detragiache (2002), one of the most important factors in banking is deposit insurance. Deposit insurance provides security in financial circles and enable economic crisis to e handled in ways that are not debilitating to the country. Demirguc-Kunt and Detragiache (2002), examined evidence taken from sixty-one banks between 1980 and 1997. Demirguc-Kunt and Detragiache (2002), found that for bank stability deposit insurance is necessary. These insurances are especially helpful in circumstances where there exists little regulation of interest rates. Additionally if the institutional environment is not strong, the insurance serves to create stability.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the case of UK crisis, the banking practices did not require explicit insurance that was relational to the risk taken. As a result the risks far outweighed the insurance. Even with th e insurance compensation, the banks fell short of the amounts they needed to recoup. Goodhart (2008) offers the basic reasons why the crisis happened. What was reported in the USA had similarities with what was going on in the UK. Goodhart (2008) states the main reasons behind the crisis was mortgage backed securities, seemingly surpluses in global savings and macrostability (Goodhart 2008). As a result the market was overconfident and investments were not carefully construed. The UK drive to the crisis was the credit crunch. The credit crunch however was itself a direct result of the defaults in mortgage repayment and falling prices for the houses (Goodhart 2008). In addition, investor confidence was shaken and many tried to make withdrawals form banks and even long term securities. According to LaBrosse (2008), one of the reasons that the UK authorities decide to review the financial safety net was because of the crisis witness in the Nothern Rck Plc. The crisis revealed major fai lings in provision of adequate financial safety in cases of need. According to LaBrosse, the UK authorities responded by issuing recommendations for the protection of depositors and in addition they suggested some reforms to the banking practices. According to LaBrosse (2008), one of the reasons for the crisis was due to no mandated regulators to minimize risk. This led to banks taking aggressive risks which did put the depositors’ accounts into risk. These choices were made without the appreciation of the long-term consequences of such risks. The taxpayers have also been furnished with little awareness and as a result they wee not able to make financially sound decisions. One of the consequences was that as soon as many realized the financial difficulties of financial institutions, they went ahead to withdraw their money from banks and other institutions. As a result, financial institutions were pushed towards bankrupts. In order to deal with the problem, one of the recommen dations by UK authorities is for the use of a financial agency that is independent and which will work to minimize risk (Lacrosse 2008). The FSCS can then liaise with parliament to come up with effective means of protecting depositors and tax payers. Public awareness would also be increased to avoid panic among depositors and increase sound judgment.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The UK Banking Practice that led to financial crisis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Mcllroy (2008), also found that the reason for the crisis was the lack of sufficient trigger mechanisms in the financial sector. Had the triggers been in palace, the safety systems would have been able to respond in a timely manner and avoid further threats to the economy. According to Mcllroy (2008), to fully ensure financial stability the system lacked sufficient credible approach. Such an approach is important in order to regulate standar ds, supervision and management of smaller institutions so that they do not affect the entire system. However failure to have these support in pace aggravated the financial problems and instigated the crisis. Additionally Mcllroy (2008), states that due to the taxation procedures institutions that were taking excessive risks did not pay more taxes for their insurance. Had they paid more there would have been an easier way to recover losses for banks. Crick (1927) discussed the various ways in which banks manage their reserves. As they get investment, banks also lend money out. However they retain a certain amount so that their clients can also make withdrawals. It is the balance between the money lent and the money available for withdrawal that banks need to balance to ensure smooth running of their institutions. This is what is known as fractional reserve banking. This was one of the critical mistakes that banks in the UK made. They took too much risk and minimized their reserve. Th is in turn affected the mortgage sector. It is this practice that led to seeming surplus of cash in the world and the subsequent crisis. Shin (2009) explains the cause of the financial crisis to have had its origins in the Rock’s Bank depositor run. This had a negative effect on other banks with investor confidence shaken. The main cause of the Rock Bank problem was as a result of dependency on short term investment it took with investment institutions Lastra (2008) agrees with the effect that Bock bank had and the subsequent response of investor. According to Lastra (2008), bank regulations played a big part in the progression of the crisis. If there had been sufficient measures to aid the banks which were undergoing distress the crisis might not have progressed at the rate or extent that it did. According to Bicksler (2008), two factors have been proposed as the causes of the crisis and in particular the sub prime mortgage problems. One of this of the reasons has been given as inappropriate incentives that were geared towards securitization. The second reason given has been that there was mismanagement of information whereby financial institutions, investment securitizes and investors did not have adequate information to sufficiently balance the flow of money in the mortgage sector.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Haubrich and Thomson (2008) state that due to the collective role that banks play in the financial industry it is by umbrella regulation that crisis can be effectively evaded. Accordingly having the government as part of the regulating team is beneficial so that there is more cohesion in regulatory measures. According to Bicksler (2008), a study into the issue has given evidence that indeed the securitization caused significant risks to be taken when determining the mortgages to approve. As a result greater risks were taken. In due course because of lack of sufficient management of risk there were more cases of default. Bicksler cites studies conducted that indicated that mortgages were given to increasingly less income applicants and with the loans came higher cases of default than would have occurred of the approval had not been lowered. In addition Bicksler states that loan borrowers were often not aware of the transactional cost and interest rates and as a result, they made deci sions that were too taxing increasing default rates. Bicksler (2008) examined studies that have been done regarding homeowners and found that indeed many of them were not sufficiently informed about the taxes, fees and interests that their purchases would accrue. According to Bicksler (2008), economics attribute much of the financial crisis in the mortgage sector to the homebuyers’ financial illiteracy. Another important contribution to banking practices and the crisis is what Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008) regarded as relationship between the political and economic realities with finances. According to Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008), there exists a strong relationship between the financial institutions and politics. As a result, banking financial institutions can be influenced by the politics of the land and negatively affect their activities or practices. Additionally, the UK insurance which is mostly managed by government is not as effective as those run by private sector. T his is because negative impact in the deposits is higher government run schemes. One of the points that Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008) make is that housing finance which is mostly conducted by banks has ballot box implications. As a result politicians are not always quick to respond to the situation and downplay the extent of the crisis for political reasons. The crisis was an indicator of problems that the UK authorities would want to deal with before losing public confidence. The public reaction is also tied in with preference for interest taxes, taxation and spending. The banking system which ought to be more accountable relied on the government to cushion their losses. However, it is important for banks to have independent overseers who can be expected to be neutral and respond to financial issues with the investors’ interest. Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008) argue that in an economy where there are housing ownership inequalities, many people take advantage of additional mean to get loans so that they can escape taxes or defer their loan payments. This presented problems to banking systems which require the repayments for their running. As Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008) found out some of the people who acquired new mortgage loans were purchasing second homes or refinancing. There was therefore a financial burden placed on banks leading to the financial crisis. Honohan and Klingebiel (2003) support Schwartz and Seabrooke (2008) in stating that banking lending and repayment is a delicate procedure. Honohan and Klingebiel (2003) states that all economies that face crisis find that they need to drastically reform their banking system. This underscores the importance of banking systems to the stability of a country’s financial stability. In the face of a crisis like the one in UK, banking practices did not rise up to the occasion as they required accommodating policies. These policies are inclusive of limited recapitalization, government bail out, open -ended liquidity support and blanket deposit guarantees. These measures spread over to several banks led to fiscal cut backs. As government spending was limited the effect was further passed to tax payers leading to aggravation of the financial crisis. The Office for National Statistics (2010) has released correction notice that is mean to serve as an indicator of measures that will be used in future to generate intervention to prevent crisis. This is because the government realized that early intervention is critical to containing the effects of financial instabilities. The bank sector for example is one in which information to users can greatly enhance their knowledge of changing economic situations. This can help people to make better decisions and be aware of the trends. Sample The sample will consist of several banks in different towns and of different sizes. The sample will be selected randomly to ensure that different types of banks are represented. The sample will consist of Mortgage loans data from banks and lending repayment. In addition it will include the policies regarding mortgage loans. Methods The method to be used will be data from banks and economic statistics. The survey will examine banks policies in issuing mortgage loans, interest rates and rates of defaulting. Constrains, limitation and ethical issues One of the constrains of the research is that it cannot cover all the areas that would be poignant to the study. Financial situations are affected by more than just one factor. As a result, interdependent factors should be examined to ascertain the proper conclusions are reached. A limitation for the study will be finances. In order to undertake a good research the research would require a lot of finances to study as many banks as possible. In addition, a study of government and its financial policies would enrich the study and make it comprehensive. Limitation of time will also be experienced. With a limited time frame the study can not be as broad as it could be. The sample will have to be representative of other banks. One of the ethical issues will be confidentiality. Since the financial transactions of bank customers are supposed to be confidential and private, the study will need to come up with a way of ensuring that personal information is excluded from the study. Personal or identifying data will be exempted form the study. Another ethical issue will be maintaining confidentiality of bank information. Banks also have information that they like to keep private. The study will ensure that all confidential materials are kept confidential. The research will provide confidential agreements so that those they deal with can be assured of their privacy and confidentiality. References Bicksler, J., (2008) The sub prime mortgage debacle and its and its linkages to corporate governance. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, 5 (4), pp. 295-300. Crick, W. F., (1927) The genesis of bank deposits. Economica, 7 (20), pp.191–202. Demirguc-kunt, A. and Detragiache, S., (20020 Does deposit insurance increase banking system stability? An empirical investigation. Journal of Monetary Economics, 47 (7), pp 1373-1406 Goodhart, C. A., (2008) The background to the 2007 financial crisis. International  Economics and Economic Policy, 4(4), pp. 331-346. Haubrich, J. G. and Thomson, J. B., (2008) Umbrella supervision and the role of the central bank. Journal of Banking Regulation, 10 (1), pp. 17-27. Honohan, P. and Klingebiel, D., (2003) The fiscal cost implications of an accommodating approach to banking crises. Journal of Banking and Finance, 27 (8), pp 1539–1560. LaBrosse, J. R., (2008) Time to fix the plumbing: Improving the UK framework following the collapse f Northern Rock. Journal of Banking Regulation, 9 (4), pp 293-301. Lastra, R. M., (2008) Nort Rock UK Bank insolvency and cross-border bank insolvency.  Journal of Banking Regulation, 9 (3), pp.165–186. Mcllroy, D. H. , (2008) Regulating risk: a risk measured response to the banking crisis.  Journal of Banking Regulation, 9 (4), pp. 284-292. Office for National Statistics., (2010) Financial crisis and recession: How ONS has addressed the statistical and analytical challenges. Economic and Labor Market Review, 4 (1), pp. 30-35. 10. Schwartz, H. and  Seabrooke, L., (2008) varieties of residential capitalism in the international political economy: old welfare states and the new politics of housing. Comparative European Politics, 6 (3), pp. 237–261. Shin, H. S.,(2009) Reflections on Northern Rock: the bank run that heralded the global financial crisis. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 23 (1), pp. 101–119. This research paper on The UK Banking Practice that led to financial crisis was written and submitted by user Maxx Bates to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Italian Adverbs of Manner - Avverbi di Modo

Italian Adverbs of Manner - Avverbi di Modo In English, adverbs of manner (avverbi di modo) are ones that end in -ly, like carefully or slowly. They indicate the way (the manner) in which an action takes place. Mia madre cucina egregiamente. - My mom cooks very well.La neve cade morbidamente sul davanzale della finestra. - The snow falls softly on the windowsill.Sono andato in fretta e furia dal dottore perchà ¨ non mi sentivo bene. - I hurried quickly to the doctor because I was not feeling well.Devi mescolare energicamente il composto prima di passare la teglia nel forno. - You must stir the mixture vigorously before transferring the pan to the oven. Which adverbs end in -mente? adverbs ending in -mente, which are the most numerous, and are formed by adding the suffix  to: The feminine form ending in -a: Alta- altamente high- highlyAspra- aspramente bitter- bitterlyCalorosa- calorosamente warm- warmlyOnesta- onestamente honest- honestly Adjectives ending in -e: Felice- felicemente happy- happilyForte- fortemente strong- stronglyLieve- lievemente slight- slightly NOTE: adjectives ending with the syllables -le and -re that are preceded by a vowel lose the final -e before adding the suffix -mente: Abile- abilmente skillful- skillfullyAgevole- agevolmente easy- easilyRegolare- regolarmente regular- regularly Adjectives ending in -lo: Benevolo- benevolmente kind- kindlyMalevolo- malevolmente spiteful- spitefully NOTE: the suffix -mente cannot be added to adjectives indicating color as well as a small number of other adjectives such as buono - good, cattivo - bad, giovane - young, vecchio - old. Adverbs ending with the suffix -oni, which is added to nouns and to forms derived from verbs: Ginocchio- ginocchioni knee- kneelingPenzolo- penzoloni bunch, cluster- hanging, danglingTastare- tastoni to feel, to probe- gropingly Adverbs which take the singular masculine form of certain aggettivi qualificativi (qualifying adjectives): Vederci chiaro - to see it clearlyCamminare piano - to walk slowlyParlare forte - to speak loudlyGuardare storto - to look askewRispondere giusto - to answer correctly Several adverbs, which are derived from Latin: Bene - wellMale - badlyMeglio - betterPeggio - worse Locuzioni avverbiali di modo (adverbs of manner idioms), of which there are several, including: allimpazzata - wildlya pià ¹ non posso - like crazya piedi - by footdi corsa - in a rushdi sicuro - surely, certainlydi solito - usuallyin fretta - quickly, fastin un batter docchio - in the blink of an eye The Origin of Adverbs of Manner An avverbio di modo that ends with the suffix -mente is derived from a Latin phrase consisting of an adjective and the noun mente: for example, the Latin devota mente means with devout intent, with devout feeling; sana mente means with sound purpose, with good purpose and so on. Over time the recurring use evolved; the second element of the phrase lost both its nominal quality as well as its semantic value and became a simple suffix. Thus was born the adverb: devotamente (devout), sanamente (soundly), fortemente (loudly). In any case, the adverb of manner maintains clear evidence of its former phrase state: the female gender of the adjective (devotamente, not devotomente, given that the Latin noun mente is feminine). Adverbs ending in -mente replaced vulgar Latin adverbs ending in -e and classical Latin adverbs ending in -iter: for example, devotamente substituted for the Latin devote, and solamente substituted for singulariter.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Robert E Lees Civil War Battles

Robert E Lee's Civil War Battles Robert E. Lee was the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 to the Civil Wars end. In this role, he was arguably the most significant general of the Civil War. His ability to gain the most from his commanders and men allowed the Confederacy to maintain its defiance of the north against increasing odds. Lee was the principal commander in several Civil War battles. Battle of Cheat Mountain, September 12-15, 1861 This was the first battle where General Lee led Confederate troops in the Civil War, serving under Brigadier General Albert Rust. He fought against Brigadier General Joseph Reynolds entrenchments at the top of Cheat Mountain in western Virginia. Federal resistance was fierce, and Lee eventually called off the attack. He was recalled to Richmond on October 30, achieving few results in western Virginia. This was a Union victory. Battles of Seven Days, June 25-July 1, 1862 On June 1, 1862, Lee was given command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Between  June 25th to July 1st, 1862, he led his troops into seven battles, collectively called the Battles of Seven Days.   Oak Grove: The Union army attacked in a swampy area. When darkness descended, the Union army retreated. The results of this battle were inconclusive.Beaver Dam Creek or Mechanicsville: Robert E. Lee pushed against General McClellans right flank. The Union army was able to hold back the attackers with heavy casualties. However, the arrival of Stonewall Jacksons troops meant that the Union position was pushed back. Nonetheless, this was a Union victory.  Gaines  Mill: Lee led his troops against a fortified Union position north of the Chickahominy River. The Confederates were eventually able to push the Union soldiers back across the river, resulting in a Confederate victory.  Garnetts and Goldings Farms: Confederate Major General John B. Magruder under Lees command fought against the Union line that was stationed south of the Chickahominy River while Lee was fighting at Gaines Mill. The results of this fighting were inconclusive.  Savages Station and Allens Farm: Both these bat tles occurred on June 29, 1862, the fourth day of fighting during the Seven Days Battles. The Union was  retreating after deciding not to advance on Richmond. Robert E. Lee sent his forces after the Union troops,  and they met in battle. However, the results of both of these battles were inconclusive. Glendale/White Oak Swamp: These two battles occurred as the Union troops were retreating. Stonewall Jacksons troops were kept tied up in the battle at White Oak Swamp, while the rest of the army tried to stop the retreat at Glendale. In the end, the battle was inconclusive.  Malvern Hill: The Confederates under Lee tried unsuccessfully to attack the Unions fortified position on top of Malvern Hill. Confederate losses were high.  McClellan withdrew to the James River, ending the Peninsula Campaign. This was a Union victory. Second Battle of Bull Run, Manassas, August 25-27, 1862 The most decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign, troops led by Lee, Jackson, and Longstreet were able to score a huge win for the Confederacy.   Battle of  South Mountain, September 14, 1862 This battle occurred as part of the Maryland Campaign. The Union army was able to take over Lees position on South Mountain. However, McClellan failed to pursue Lees devastated army on the 15th, which meant Lee had time to regroup at Sharpsburg.   Battle of Antietam, September 16-18, 1862 McClellan finally met with Lees troops on the 16th. The bloodiest day of battle during the Civil War occurred on September 17th. The Federal troops had a huge advantage in numbers, but  Lee continued to fight with all his forces. He was able to hold off the federal advance while his troops retreated across the Potomac to Virginia. The results were inconclusive, though strategically important for the Union army.   Battle of  Fredericksburg, December 11-15, 1862 Union Major General Ambrose Burnside tried to take Fredericksburg. The Confederates occupied the surrounding heights. They repelled numerous attacks. Burnside decided in the end to retreat. This was a Confederate victory.   Battle of Chancellorsville, April 30-May 6, 1863 Considered by many to be Lees greatest victory, he marched his troops to meet the federal troops who were trying to advance on the Confederate position. The Union force led by Major General Joseph Hooker decided to form a defense at Chancellorsville. Stonewall Jackson led his troops against the exposed Federal left flank, decisively crushing the enemy. In the end, the Union line broke and they retreated. Lee lost one of his most able generals when Jackson was killed by friendly fire. This was a Confederate victory. Battle of Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863 In the Battle of Gettysburg, Lee attempted a full assault against the Union forces led by Major General George Meade. Fighting was fierce on both sides. However, the Union army was able to repulse the Confederates. This was a key Union victory. Battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864 The Battle of the Wilderness was the first of  General Ulysses S. Grants offensive into Northern Virginia during the Overland Campaign. Fighting was fierce,  but the results were inconclusive. Grant, however, did not retreat.   Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, May 8-21, 1864 Grant and Meade tried to continue their march to Richmond in the Overland Campaign but were stopped at Spotsylvania Courthouse. Over the next two weeks, a number of battles occurred, resulting in 30,000 total casualties. The results were inconclusive, but Grant was able to continue his march to Richmond. Overland Campaign, May 31-June 12, 1864 The Union Army under Grant continued to make their advance in the Overland Campaign. They made headway to Cold Harbor. However, on June 2, both armies were on the field of battle stretching seven miles. Grant ordered an attack that resulted in a rout for his men. He eventually left the field of battle, choosing to approach Richmond through the less well-defended town of  Petersburg. This was a Confederate victory. Battle of  Deep Bottom, August 13-20, 1864 The Union Army crossed the James River at Deep Bottom to start threatening Richmond. They were unsuccessful, however, as Confederate counterattacks drove them out. They eventually retreated back to the other side of the James River. Battle of Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865 General Robert E. Lee attempted at Appomattox Court House to escape the Union troops and head towards Lynchburg, where supplies were waiting. However, Union reinforcements made this impossible. Lee surrendered to Grant.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Multinational enterprises from the Asia Pacific in the global economy Essay

Multinational enterprises from the Asia Pacific in the global economy - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that multinational corporations are enterprises that a base in a particular country, but with a number of subsidiaries abroad. Most of these multinational enterprises are state owned organizations and receive numerous supports from the government. In the recent past, there has been a rise and growing role of multinational enterprises, particularly in the Asia Pacific region in the global economy. In the past few decades, multinational enterprises from the Asia Pacific were not as dominant and buoyant in the global economy as those in Europe and America. Today, the dynamics have changed and the focus has been shifted to the Multinational enterprises in the Asia Pacific. Research has shown that 29% of multinational enterprises from the globe come from the Pacific Asia. This is out of the over five hundred listed multinationals. In essence, it means that of the 500 listed companies, 145 are from the Pacific Asia region. In the recent past, Chi na alone has added close to about 9 multinationals. This to a large extent sensational in the sense that the global index of companies did not previously indicate a surge in the multinational enterprise. Countries like Japan, China, India, and South Korea continue to dominate the markets in unprecedented rates. The growing influence of these multinationals and their role in the global economy is an interesting phenomenon that warrants some keen interest.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Reflection on Peacebuilding Simulation Assignment

Reflection on Peacebuilding Simulation - Assignment Example Mike can de-escalade the conflicts between the communities by acknowledging the needs of both parties and their position. The communities have their differences, and knowing what each community expects from the other is a start. The communities need to be brought down and have a talk about the reason for their uncooperativeness. Addressing such issues might be helpful as the real cause of conflict can be noted. Events that might make the escalation be fully blown might include the rising cases of rapes, vandalism and the children of the Westerners being harassed by the Mendozan and Marenese kids (Fischer & Crowe, 2007). This might make the communities seek vengeance against one another, which will in turn cause full escalation to arise. The normal position amid the two parties is that despite the conflicts, and differences they have, the communities living in Blue River do not want to see the economy of the place deteriorate. That is the reason why they are running their businesses; for the Westerners, the shops are open frequently, compared to others that are fighting to keep their businesses alive. The westerners might not be able to accept the culture of the people who lived there initially; the Mendozans and Marenese, and this might cause more problems to arise. There is a difference in beliefs, traditions and the ways of lives of the communities in Blue River (Malek, 2012). Mike should make sure that the riots do not happen again, and this can be done by looking at the grievances of the communities. If the grievances of the communities of Blue River are not addressed, there is the possibility of another riot. Engaging with the communities is a way in which relationship between the communities can be built. The communities in Blue River cannot meet face to face because of the riot that occurred. Some problems that might arise include murders, continued vandalism and rise in rapes. There should be patrols all over the area, from

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Country lovers Essay Example for Free

Country lovers Essay copy and paste method Screen-reader users, click here to turn off Google Instant. About 2,640,000 results (0. 56 seconds) Search Results country lovers Web definitions The Country Lovers is a 1911 short silent comedy film directed by Mack Sennett and starring Blanche Sweet. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/The_Country_Lovers Country Lovers by Nadine Gordimer, an Analysis lee custodio leecustodio. hubpages. com †º Books, Literature, and Writing? Mar 5, 2012 Country Lovers (1975) is a story of forbidden love between a black woman—Thebedi and Paulus, the son of her white masters. It was a story of Country Lovers College Essays StudyMode. com www. studymode. com †º Home †º Literature? above being a line of strung together sentences and give the story meaning. Recently I have had the pleasure of reading the short story â€Å"Country Lovers†, Country Lovers Meaning Free Essays 1 20 StudyMode. com www. studymode. com/subjects/country-lovers-meaning-page1. html? 20+ items Free Essays on Country Lovers Meaning for students. Use our Country Lovers 737 Words 3 Pages. Country Lovers 980 Words 4 Pages. Response to Country Lovers Research Paper Hamdez8 www. studymode. com †º Home †º Linguistics Human Languages? The first thing that captured my interest about the story â€Å"Country Lovers†, by Nadine Literature exists only when it is read; meaning is an event (versus the New Reading Reflection on the short story by Nadine Gordimer, Country www. scribd. com/ /Reading-Reflection-on-the-short-story-by-Nadine-G? Jun 29, 2013 Finally, I had to evaluate the meaning of the selected literary work, which in this case is Country Lovers, by Nadine Gordimer, once again Country Lovers flashcards | Quizlet quizlet. com/5228536/country-lovers-flash-cards/? Vocabulary words for Quotes and Meanings. Includes studying games and tools such as flashcards. Country Lovers Essays Justew53 PaperCamp. com www. papercamp. com †º Literature? Jun 18, 2012 In Nadine Gordimers story, Country Lovers she uses many different methods to describe the meaning behind this story;; An Analysis Of Country Free Country Lovers Vs The Welcome Table Essays 1 30 Anti Essays www. antiessays. com/topics/country-lovers-vs-the-welcome-table/0? Get access to Country Lovers Vs The Welcome Table Essays only from Anti The Welcome Table: discover different human experiences and the meanings. Essay | Analysis of Country Lovers by Nadine Gordimer www. bookrags. com/essay-2003/3/6/115012/5149/? Mar 6, 2003 Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for essays and paper topics like Analysis of Country Lovers by Nadine Gordimer. View this student Patriotism Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster www. merriam-webster. com/dictionary/patriotism? pa ·tri ·ot ·ism. noun ? pa-tre-? -? ti-z? m, chiefly British ? pa-. : love that people feel for their country. Full Definition of PATRIOTISM. : love for or devotion to ones

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Late Anglo-saxon Period Kings :: essays research papers fc

Late Anglo-Saxon Period Kings of Wessex By the time Edward the Martyr took the throne in 975, Christianity was widespread throughout England and the rest of Britain. Edward was born in 963, and was just entering his teenage years when his father, Edgar, died. He made a claim to the throne, as the first son of the king. His half-brother Aethelred, son of the third wife, made another claim (qtd in Britannia 1). Edward was murdered when he rode to visit Aethelred at Corfe is Dorset. Aethelred’s vassals pretended to welcome Edward, and in doing so, stabbed him. It is safe to assume that Aethelred would not have instigated this incident, being a mere seven years of age at the time. Edward was later canonized by his brother and was known as King Edward the Martyr.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Following the assassination of his brother, Edward, Aethelred was forced upon the English throne at the age of ten. Aethelred was married twice. His first wife, Elfigfu of Mercia, bore him no less than eleven children. His second marriage to Emma of Normandy produced three children. Throughout his reign as King, he was hindered by the fact that he could not fully trust the support of his generals at a time when the Danish invaders were a constant threat to the English. In an act of futile appeasement, Aethelred attempted to stop Danish cravings by paying what was known as Danegeld. Danegeld was an annual tax believed to have been imposed originally to buy off Danish invaders in England (m-w 1). In 1009, however, the King of the Danes, Sweyn, decided that as well as keeping the territory, and monies he had taken from the English, that he would now take the whole country. Four years later, in 1013, Sweyn had control of England and Aethelred had fled to Normandy to s eek protection from Emma’s brother, Robert the Good. Sweyn died in 1014 and Aethelred reclaimed the English crown for another 2 years before his death at the age of 48 in 1016.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Following the death of Aethelred, there was a bloody war of succession expected to take place between Sweyn’s son, Cnut, and Edmund II, Aethelred’s son. This war, didn’t take place, however, simply because Cnut figured he could made do with Denmark and Norway.

Monday, November 11, 2019

Driving Curfews Violating Teens Rights Essay

A seventeen year old friend of mine headed home from work at 11:00 at night on a Thursday in the month of July. Wanting to raise enough money to go on a band trip to Florida, she needed to work long hours, needing money to pay for her car insurance, she needed to work long hours and wanting to get in as many hours possible in one day, she needed to work long hours. Making money meant so much to her that she would go into work at the drop of a hat. Feeling tired and wanting to get home, she gets in her car, fastens her seat belt and starts her ten minute drive home. It was a dark night with clear sky’s and stars could be seen everywhere. The rode lit by the moon shining bright, when all of a sudden the moon light was not the only light shining in her window. Flashing lights from a police car pulling her over, blinded her as she looked in her rear view mirror. Rolling down her window, a police officer approached her and said in a stern voice, â€Å"Drivers license and proof of insurance. † She had a please-don’t-give-me-a-ticket look on her face as tears filled her eyes and asked, â€Å"What did I do wrong? After looking at the age on her license he responded, â€Å" You are driving past curfew so a ticket needs to be issued. † Trying to tell him about coming home from a hard day at work did not seem to matter, he issued her the ticket anyways. Her fear comparable to fear felt by drivers being pulled on the television show, Cops. After the coast was clear, feeling down in the dumps, she headed home. There is a nighttime driving restriction for drivers ages 16 and 17 years old where they need to be off the road by 10:00 p. m. Sunday through Thursday and by 11:00 p. m.  Friday and Saturday. Eventhough this may seem true, I feel curfews should be determined by parents, not by public laws. A parent should know better then the government if their child is responsible enough to drive past curfew and they should not have to be concerned about their child getting caught driving home late. Curfews have been a huge issue for teens who have to stay out late for school related activities or events. For instance, kids feel like they are penalized when they come home from a school activity past curfew even when they do not have any other choice. Feeling forced to drive later then usual, hoping they do not get pulled over, they head for home after their activity has ended. If a student does get pulled over for driving home after curfew, it is a long shot, but they will have to pray the officer believes their story about coming home from a school sport or activity and let them go free. Curfews should be given to students by their parents, not by the law. If a child acts irresponsible then their parent should have the right to keep them home from the school activity and keep them off the street at night. On the other hand, if a responsible child is out one hour past curfew, not doing anything wrong, it does not mean it should result in getting a ticket. Their parent gave them permission to join the activity in the first place so dropping out of the school related event is not an option. A student should never think of quitting a sport because of a curfew law. It is true, that curfew laws have come about to decrease the amount of crimes, however, this has not been proven true. For example, a survey in the July 1997 York Daily Record found that nearly three quarters of the two hundred largest cities in the United States have implemented curfew laws to lower juvenile crime rates. Statistics showed no support for their claim. Furthermore, teens will participate in illegal activities even if they have a curfew. They will either do it earlier or stay out past curfew and risk getting caught. Besides, most crimes are committed by adults and are more serious and dangerous since they have more resources than children do. The government should trust that parents can make the right decision on what time their child should be home. They need to focus their attention on more important issues like preventing crime from happening in the first place, instead of spending their time on trying to get kids home earlier. Parents of teenagers feel that there is a benefit to having curfews especially for the safety of their children. They expect their child home by curfew. If their child does not arrive home on time, they will know something is wrong and they can seek help faster if their child should need it. Parents feel that having a curfew is a really good excuse to leave an uncomfortable situation, if their child feels they need an excuse to get out of something wrong. Having a curfew also encourages responsibility. It teaches a teen to have respect for rules and laws they may not like or understand. At the same time, parents should remember that they know their teenager best, and they need to set rules according to their own teen. If a responsible teenager has a good record, they should be given more freedom. A mature teen should have the same rights as parents do. Parents do not have to follow a curfew law because they are older and assumed more responsible. Similarly, a mature and responsible teen should have the same rights. In a nutshell, it makes more sense to have curfews determined by parents not by public laws. If a responsible child has earned their parents trust, they should have more freedom. Without this freedom, issues will occur when they need to stay out late for school related activities, events or for a job. Furthermore, curfew laws have shown to do very little to prevent crimes throughout the city. The number of crimes has remained the same since curfew laws went into effect. Without a curfew, teens would get the chance to feel grown up and take responsibility for their own actions. They could drive home safely from school activities or a job with out risking getting a ticket. Since curfews are not helping to decrease the amount of crimes, there is no point of having one. Officers need to concentrate on other ways to prevent crimes in the city without giving teens a set time to be home every night. At any rate, parents want to keep their kids safe so their curfew should always be determined by them not by the law.

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace

In this paper we will discuss the factors that relate to the relationship between the employee and employer in regards to age diversity and how organizations can handle this form of diversity. Managers have a unique challenge with having such a diverse workforce as they need to be able to prevent it from occurring. They also need to be watchful as even with the best policies discrimination can still occur and they must be able to handle the quickly and efficiently.No person should feel discriminated against in their place of employment and possibly with everyone adhering to the policies this may one day be the case. Increasing Age Diversity in the Workplace In a country that is diverse as the United States one would think that discrimination would not occur. Unfortunately differences in age, culture, and sex still represent some of those that are being discriminated against. Companies are taking steps to prevent further occurrences but even this is not enough as there are still docum ented cases of discrimination that have occurred.We also have no way of quantifying the amount of cases that have gone unreported. Anti-discrimination laws have been passed, now it is up to the companies to implement policies that adhere to these laws and ensure equal opportunities to all of their employees. As the population begins to age there are several factors that may occur in regards to employment relations. With aging comes an increase is diseases and comorbidities. This represents higher costs in health care for the company and their insurance companies.In order to make up for the increase in costs there may be a need to increase the premiums for those particular patients. The children of the aging patients may also require more flexible scheduling in order to take care of their aging parents, as most families may not be able to afford the costs of assisted living. Managers have a unique challenge when dealing with the age diversity in their companies. Although there is leg islation in place in regards to equality, there is a real gap in between the law and what actually occurs.Each company has their own practices of preventing discrimination in their facilities but it needs to be followed thoroughly. The managers will need to monitor their practices, on a regular basis, to make sure that they are not discriminating against their employees. They themselves may not believe that they are indeed discriminating against anyone but this is where they need to be educated further so that they will be cognizant of their actions.Geert Demuijnck writes in his article, â€Å"The mere fact that practices are designed and implemented does not imply that inequality automatically is reduced† (Demuijnck, 2009). Discrimination is not a straightforward problem. Companies will need to implement policies and possibly change practices several times until there is a satisfactory outcome. Another challenge for managers is the ability for the aging workforce to learn an d implement new technology. By no means does this mean that they cannot learn, but there will need to be programs set in place that will train them to use the new electronics.This will need to be offered to all employees, not just the older population, as you do not want to unintentionally discriminate against the younger employees. It could be voluntary and/or it could be an incentivized program that would give each person who passes the course a certificate and increase in pay. The aging workforce should not be disqualified from working just because there is new technology that is being implemented every day; they just need on the job training to acquaint themselves with the new software and equipment.Managers also need to understand how to work with the vast differences in generations. There are four different generations in the workforce today and the way they interact and perceive their lives and careers are vastly different. Not only will managers needs to be able to accommoda te the aging employees, but they will also need to understand the differences between the generations and equip them to work together to promote their strengths and become productive group.Organizations can cope with the differences with discrimination by setting a clear policy in place and making sure that the policy is distributed to all of their employees. This could be done through a handbook or a pamphlet. Once the policy is in place there should be clearly defined guidelines and penalties for not adhering to the policy. Before the policy is rolled out, managers should be trained on how the policy will work and how they are to identify other employees that are not adhering to the guidelines.The policy should be clear cut as to how an employee may file a complaint. If an employee or another manager is found to be breaking the policy then a progressive penalty system should be issued starting with a verbal warning and progressing to the possibility of being let go from the instit ution. It may not be easy to follow but the policy will need to be adhered to fully. Secondly, if an employee feels discriminated against the organization may have to cope with the legal matters and legal expenses if the person decides to press suit.The expenses may not always be monetary; the expenses could include the time spent by personnel gathering documents for the defense, also loss in morale and reputation. As previously described, companies need to have the policies set in place to prevent discrimination from occurring thereby also preventing litigation and the financial costs associated with it. As companies set policies in place to eliminate discrimination, they must also examine their existing policies to ensure that they do not discriminate in any way.Policies that have mandatory retirement dates may need to be modified or be completely removed. Most positions can be filled with an employee of any age provided, of course, that they have the skills for the position. Earl ier it was discussed that programs could be provided to keep the aging workers up to date with the technical changes, these programs must be offered to each employee. If the companies only offer the programs to specified age groups this could be argued as a form of discrimination. Healthcare premiums are offered at a lower cost if a person is healthy.Naturally when you age your health begins to deteriorate so decreased premiums for those who are younger or healthier may be taken as discrimination. Unfortunately these incentives are put in place to help promote healthier lifestyles but they do, in a way, discriminate against those that are aging. To change this would be difficult. One way would be to stop offering the discounted premiums to those that are healthy all together. Another option would be to offer the discounts not based on what diseases you have but on what kind of lifestyle you live (not smoking, increasing exercise).Certain things such as genetics predispose people tow ards medical conditions that they have no way of preventing and they should not be penalized financially for this. In conclusion, there is no question that there has been a decrease in documented cases of age discrimination over the last several years, but even with the changes made in the workplace we know that it continues. Companies must educate their managers on their anti-discrimination policies and also educate their employees in regards to how to discuss their concerns if they feel that they are being discriminated against.There is no easy answer to the discrimination argument as everyone perceives situations differently. As the saying goes, the best defense is a good offense. Preventing the discrimination from occurring is the offense. Also employees need to feel that discussing their concerns with their managers will not have repercussions on themselves and managers need to be educated in order to handle their concerns properly. This will improve over time but the companies must constantly monitor and make changes as necessary.