Monday, May 18, 2020

Essay about Colonialism and Politics - European...

European Perceptions of Africa Living in the dawn of the 21st century, the idea of economic development permeates third world politics. Perhaps no single issue has raised so much hope, or so much scepticism, as the idea of development. Historically, attempts at economic development have resulted in varying degrees of success and failure. Nowhere has this been more apparent as in Africa. By the 20th century, Africa began to play an increasingly important role in the European economy. In the 1920s, Europe promoted Laissez-Faire policies in Africa, but gradually shifted towards protectionism and Neo-Mercantilism in the 1930s, and finally to disengagement in the 1950s. The purpose of this essay is to chronicle these†¦show more content†¦They helped pattern a new ideal - one in which Europe actively took measures to improve the African situation. Although the Great Depression would cause Europe to re-evaluate its African policies, the idea of developing the peripheries (even if only to support the metro poles) would emerge as a potent force in post World War Two politics. Thanks in no little part to Emery and Sarrault, the idea of development had been born. Just as it was recovering from World War One, the rippling effects of the Great Depression hit the shores of Europe. Already in a restructuring phase, the Depression caused global markets to once again fluctuate. Again, Europe was in a quagmire. How could it achieve self-sufficiency while its currencies was undervalued on the global market? For France and Britain, the answer was simple: Make use of their colonies. Shortly before the Depression, the 1929 Colonial Development Act (British) and the Great Colonial Loans Act (French) were passed. It was believed there were enough resources stockpiled in the metropoles to invest in the colonies, which would return the investment in the form of cheap exports. The bulk of these loans were designed to improve African transport infrastructure.2 Following this trend, Britain andShow MoreRelatedThe Geographic, Political, and Ethnic Impact European Colonialism Has Played on the Present History of Africa 1486 Words   |  6 Pagesfailure s in Africa can be traced back to the advent of colonialism. There is a great deal of evidence that illustrates the impact that colonialism and foreign intervention has had a negative effect on the development of present history of Africa. This essay will attempt to examine the geographic, political and ethnic impact European colonialism has played on the development of the African, and how these contributions have put Africa on its current trajectory. Initial European interest in Africa appearedRead MoreThe Colonialism Effect Of Africa1002 Words   |  5 PagesThe Colonialism Effect of Africa As the world races for its place in history, many continents excel on their mark on the map. It is because Africa was in the right place, but in a different time they were taken advantage of their glory. Although it is difficult for Africa to retrace and reclaim its memoirs, it has an origin that had existed before colonialism. The attempt of challenging modern history has desperately provided an economical realm that extracts and injects into Africa resources. Read MoreColonialism Of Afric A Continent Dependent On International Aid1826 Words   |  8 PagesColonialism of Africa would leave everlasting footprints on politics, technology, and cultural structure of the continent. The act of colonizing the continent would give birth to both positive and negative impacts which are evident in present day Africa. Africa in its present state is considered to be the poorest and least developed lands in the world, which is puzzling due to its wealth of natural resources. The land is riddled with corruption, poor living conditions, disease, and famine. Most wouldRead MoreColonialism Of Film And Literature Essay1598 Words   |  7 Pages Chenelle Seck Sociology of Colonialism Professor Ravi Palat 17 November 2016 Colonialism in Film and Literature Colonialism is one country’s control over another. It involves leaders who are in power and the masses who are powerless and oppressed. Many countries around the world have been colonized, exploited, and oppressed by European countries for various reasons, including the European powers’ need to civilize and assimilate societies that were different from their own. The topic of colonizationRead MoreCritical Theory2567 Words   |  11 Pagesthe theories’ application. In this essay two theories will be examined in regards to their advantages and disadvantages, when applied. For this, Feminism and Post-Colonialism will be used, as both theories unite in their aim to deconstruct the dominant ideologies and stereotypes in a patriarchal and imperialistic ‘white European male ’ dominated society, thus overthrowing centuries of colonization, subordination, marginalization and  exploitation Feminists seek to reconstruct decrepit ideasRead MoreCritical Theory2551 Words   |  11 Pagesof the theories’ application. In this essay two theories will be examined in regards to their advantages and disadvantages, when applied. For this, Feminism and Post-Colonialism will be used, as both theories unite in their aim to deconstruct the dominant ideologies and stereotypes in a patriarchal and imperialistic ‘white European male ’ dominated society, thus overthrowing centuries of colonization, subordination, marginalization and  exploitation Feminists seek to reconstruct decrepit ideas ofRead MoreThe European Union ( Eu )1691 Words   |  7 PagesBrexit, Enlightenment, Colonialism, and Beyond The European Union (EU), a partnership of 28 European countries, evolved from the European Economic Community in 1957 that contained six original members, not including Great Britain. The primary objective of the EU is to increase trade and movement of goods, services, and people, and to ensure economic growth between these nations. It also enacts legislation relating to justice and international affairs. On June 23rd, 2016 the Brexit referendum wasRead More The Meaning of Heart of Darkness in the Post-Colonial Climate3726 Words   |  15 Pageswas written: that of what, in hindsight, were the early death rattles of the heyday of European colonialism, specifically in Africa. There is some debate amongst critics as to whether the novel, ultimately, is a morality tale about human greed, power, and evil (one could toss in deceit, cowardice, and a host of psychological considerations as well), or more a sociological commentary upon the morality of colonialism and imperialism from the po int of view of a highly disillusioned expatriate turned agentRead MoreMass Media Today a Summary1563 Words   |  7 Pagescountries and continents, down and out- this is manifesting in the phenomena of ethnic cleansing with immigration restrictions. What is the role of the media in this complex contemporary framework of social, economic and cultural forces? Markets, politics, policies, exploitation, and marginalization all need an ideological basis. Such ideologies require production and reproduction through public text and talk, which in our modern times are largely generated or mediated by the mass media. The fortressesRead MoreNotes18856 Words   |  76 PagesChapter 4 Colonialism and the African Experience Virtually everything that has gone wrong in Africa since the advent of independence has been blamed on the legacies of colonialism. Is that fair? Virtually all colonial powers had â€Å"colonial missions.† What were these missions and why were they apparently such a disaster? Did any good come out of the African â€Å"colonial experience†? Introduction Colonization of Africa by European countries was a monumental milestone in  ­ the development

Monday, May 11, 2020

Marduk the Mesopotamian Creation God

Marduk—also know as Bel or Sanda—is a Babylonian creator god who defeats an earlier generation of water gods to form and populate the earth, according to the earliest written creation epic, the Enuma Elish, which is presumed to have heavily influenced the writing of Genesis I in the Old Testament. Marduks acts of creation mark the start of time and are commemorated annually as the new year. Following Marduks victory over Tiamat, the gods assemble, celebrate, and honor Marduk by conferring 50 name attributes on him. Marduk Gains Power Over the Gods Marduk became prominent in Babylonia, thanks historically to Hammurabi. Nebuchadnezzar I was the first to officially acknowledge that Marduk was head of the pantheon, in the 12th century B.C. Mythologically, before Marduk went into battle against the salt-water god Tiamat, he obtained power over the other gods, with their volition. Jastrow says, despite his primacy, Marduk always acknowledges Eas priority. The Many Names of Marduk Marduk, having received 50 names, received epithets of other gods. Thus, Marduk may have been associated with Shamash as a  sun god and with Adad as a storm god. According to A Dictionary of World Mythology, there was a henotheistic tendency in the Assyro-Babylonian pantheon that led to the incorporation of various other gods within Marduk. Zagmuk, the spring equinox new years festival marked the resurrection of Marduk. It was also the day the Babylonian kings powers were renewed. Sources Studies in Marduk, by W. G. Lambert. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London (1984).Sennacherib and Tarsus, by Stephanie Dalley. Anatolian Studies (1999).The civilization of Babylonia and Assyria, by Morris Jastrow (1915)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Literary Devices In Shakespearan Sonnet - 958 Words

I chose to admire â€Å"Shakespearean Sonnet†, because I enjoy reading Shakespeare although sometimes I have a difficult time understanding it. I find the poem to be unique, just by the way it was coordinated together. It basically is lines from each of Shakespeare’s famous plays of all time. The lines from the well-known plays was combined to form a sonnet of 14 lines using the ababa format. Throughout the poem you can find the use of a couplet in a couple of the poem’s lines.. It is very well written and excellent in ways like how it describes each of the plays in the lines of the sonnet, to the imagery, tone, and theme of the poem. The use of alliteration for example, in line 2, â€Å"Boy meets girl while feuding families fight,† is a description†¦show more content†¦Also, it shows that the author uses humor while broaching issues of today’s modern society. This poem is basically just saying that today’s society should learn a thi ng or two about the writers of yesterday, and how they use time and patience to get their poems, stories, and plays done, without the use of worry of fear of deadlines or time it must be turned in or completed. This poem has very good strengths and the excellence of the poem is that is basing the issue that people should take their time when they are writing a story, poem, short story, or play. The author is basically saying that if we take our time to do things, then we don’t have to repeat it over and repeatedly. If we get it done correctly once then we don’t have to worry about it after we are finished. I like how the author describes all the different plays written by the man Shakespeare himself. People like William Shakespeare took time to process his plays, sonnets, and poems till he feels or know that it is ready and done to show the world of his greatness. We all need to look at this and do what the author says. We all need to not rush, but take our time when d oing and assignment, a paper, or even a test. Nowadays we see time as the enemy instead of an ally. We rush into doing things without looking over or correcting our mistakes, and when we don’t do that and turn in our work as it is, and get it wrong we blame others

Forward the Foundation Chapter 15 Free Essays

Part III Dors Venabili VENABILI, DORS-The life of Hari Seldon is well encrusted with legend and uncertainty, so that little hope remains of ever obtaining a biography that can be thoroughly factual. Perhaps the most puzzling aspect of his life deals with his consort, Dors Venabili. There is no information whatever concerning Dors Venabili, except for her birth on the world of Cinna, prior to her arrival at Streeling University to become a member of the history faculty. We will write a custom essay sample on Forward the Foundation Chapter 15 or any similar topic only for you Order Now Shortly after that, she met Seldon and remained his consort for twenty-eight years. If anything, her life is more interlarded with legend than Seldon’s is. There are quite unbelievable tales of her strength and speed and she was widely spoken of, or perhaps whispered of, as â€Å"The Tiger Woman.† Still more puzzling than her coming, however, is her going, for after a certain time, we hear of her no more and there is no indication as to what happened. Her role as a historian is evidenced by her works on- Encyclopedia Galactica 1 Wanda was almost eight years old now, going by Galactic Standard Time -as everyone did. She was quite the little lady-grave in manner, with straight light-brown hair. Her eyes were blue but were darkening and she might well end with the brown eyes of her father. She sat there, lost in thought. Sixty. That was the number that preoccupied her. Grandfather was going to have a birthday and it was going to be his sixtieth-and sixty was a large number. It bothered her because yesterday she had had a bad dream about it. She went in search of her mother. She would have to ask. Her mother was not hard to find. She was talking to Grandfather-about the birthday surely. Wanda hesitated. It wouldn’t be nice to ask in front of Grandfather. Her mother had no trouble whatever sensing Wanda’s consternation. She said, â€Å"One minute, Hari, and let’s see what’s bothering Wanda. What is it, dear?† Wanda pulled at her hand. â€Å"Not here, Mother. Private.† Manella turned to Hari Seldon. â€Å"See how early it starts? Private lives. Private problems. Of course, Wanda, shall we go to your room?† â€Å"Yes, Mother.† Wanda was clearly relieved. Hand in hand, they went and then her mother said, â€Å"Now what is the problem, Wanda?† â€Å"It’s Grandfather, Mother.† â€Å"Grandfather! I can’t imagine him doing anything to bother you.† â€Å"Well, he is.† Wanda’s eyes filled with sudden tears. â€Å"Is he going to die?† â€Å"Your grandfather? What put that into your head, Wanda?† â€Å"He’s going to be sixty. That’s so old.† â€Å"No, it isn’t. It’s not young, but it’s not old, either. People live to be eighty, ninety, even a hundred-and your grandfather is strong and healthy. He’ll live a long time.† â€Å"Are you sure?† She was sniffing. Manella grasped her daughter by the shoulders and looked her straight in the eyes. â€Å"We must all die someday, Wanda. I’ve explained that to you before. Just the same, we don’t worry about it till the someday is much closer.† She wiped Wanda’s eyes gently. â€Å"Grandfather is going to stay alive till you’re all grown up and have babies of your own. You’ll see. Now come back with me. I want you to talk to Grandfather.† Wanda sniffed again. Seldon looked at the little girl with a sympathetic expression on her return and said, â€Å"What is it, Wanda? Why are you unhappy?† Wanda shook her head. Seldon turned his gaze to the girl’s mother. â€Å"Well, what is it, Manella?† Manella shook her head. â€Å"She’ll have to tell you herself.† Seldon sat down and tapped his lap. â€Å"Come, Wanda. Have a seat and tell me your troubles.† She obeyed and wriggled a bit, then said, â€Å"I’m scared.† Seldon put his arm around her. â€Å"Nothing to be scared of in your old grandfather.† Manella made a face. â€Å"Wrong word.† Seldon looked up at her. â€Å"Grandfather?† â€Å"No. Old.† That seemed to break the dike. Wanda burst into tears. â€Å"You’re old, Grandfather.† â€Å"I suppose so. I’m sixty.† He bent his face down to Wanda’s and whispered, â€Å"I don’t like it, either, Wanda. That’s why I’m glad you’re only seven going on eight.† â€Å"Your hair is white, Grandpa.† â€Å"It wasn’t always. It just turned white recently.† â€Å"White hair means you’re going to die, Grandpa.† Seldon looked shocked. He said to Manella, â€Å"What is all this?† â€Å"I don’t know, Hari. It’s her own idea.† â€Å"I had a bad dream,† said Wanda. Seldon cleared his throat. â€Å"We all have bad dreams now and then, Wanda. It’s good we do. Bad dreams get rid of bad thoughts and then we’re better off.† â€Å"It was about you dying, Grandfather.† â€Å"I know. I know. Dreams can be about dying, but that doesn’t make them important. Look at me. Don’t you see how alive I am-and cheerful-and laughing? Do I look as though I’m dying? Tell me.† â€Å"N-no.† â€Å"There you are, then. Now you go out and play and forget all about this. I’m just having a birthday and everyone will have a good time. Go ahead, dear.† Wanda left in reasonable cheer, but Seldon motioned to Manella to stay. 2 Seldon said, â€Å"Wherever do you think Wanda got such a notion?† â€Å"Come now, Hari. She had a Salvanian gecko that died, remember? One of her friends had a father who died in an accident and she sees deaths on holovision all the time. It is impossible for any child to be so protected as not to be aware of death. Actually I wouldn’t want her to be so protected. Death is an essential part of life; she must learn that.† â€Å"I don’t mean death in general, Manella. I mean my death in particular. What has put that into her head?† Manella hesitated. She was very fond, indeed, of Hari Seldon. She thought, Who would not be, so how can I say this? But how could she not say this? So she said, â€Å"Hari, you yourself put it into her head.† â€Å"I?† â€Å"Of course, you’ve been speaking for months of turning sixty and complaining loudly of growing old. The only reason people are setting up this party is to console you.† â€Å"It’s no fun turning sixty,† said Seldon indignantly. â€Å"Wait! Wait! You’ll find out.† â€Å"I will-if I’m lucky. Some people don’t make it to sixty. Just the same, if turning sixty and being old are all you talk about, you end up frightening an impressionable little girl.† Seldon sighed and looked troubled. â€Å"I’m sorry, but it’s hard. Look at my hands. They’re getting spotted and soon they’ll be gnarled. I can do hardly anything in the way of Twisting any longer. A child could probably force me to my knees.† â€Å"In what way does that make you different from other sixty-year-olds? At least your brain is working as well as ever. How often have you said that that’s all that counts?† â€Å"I know. But I miss my body.† Manella said with just a touch of malice, â€Å"Especially when Dors doesn’t seem to get any older.† Seldon said uneasily, â€Å"Well yes, I suppose-† He looked away, clearly unwilling to talk about the matter. Manella looked at her father-in-law gravely. The trouble was, he knew nothing about children-or about people generally. It was hard to think that he had spent ten years as First Minister under the old Emperor and yet ended up knowing as little about people as he did. Of course, he was entirely wrapped up in this psychohistory of his, that dealt with quadrillions of people, which ultimately meant dealing with no people at all-as individuals. And how could he know about children when he had had no contact with any child except Raych, who had entered his life as a twelve-year-old? Now he had Wanda, who was-and would probably remain to him-an utter mystery. Manella thought all this lovingly. She had the incredible desire to protect Hari Seldon from a world he did not understand. It was the only point at which she and her mother-in-law, Dors Venabili, met and coalesced-this desire to protect Hari Seldon. Manella had saved Seldon’s life ten years before. Dors, in her strange way, had considered this an invasion of her prerogative and had never quite forgiven Manella. Seldon, in his turn, had then saved Manella’s life. She closed her eyes briefly and the whole scene returned to her, almost as though it were happening to her right now. 3 It was a week after the assassination of Cleon-and a horrible week it had been. All of Trantor was in chaos. Hari Seldon still kept his office as First Minister, but it was clear he had no power. He called in Manella Dubanqua. â€Å"I want to thank you for saving Raych’s life and my own. I haven’t had a chance to do so yet.† Then with a sigh, â€Å"I have scarcely had a chance to do anything this past week.† Manella asked, â€Å"What happened to the mad gardener?† â€Å"Executed! At once! No trial! I tried to save him by pointing out that he was insane. But there was no question about it. If he had done anything else, committed any other crime, his madness would have been recognized and he would have been spared. Committed-locked up and treated-but spared, nonetheless. But to kill the Emperor-† Seldon shook his head sadly. Manella said, â€Å"What’s going to happen now, First Minister?† â€Å"I’ll tell you what I think. The Entun Dynasty is finished. Cleon’s son will not succeed. I don’t think he wants to. He fears assassination in his turn and I don’t blame him one bit. It would be much better for him to retire to one of the family estates on some Outer World and live a quiet life. Because he is a member of the Imperial House, he will untie** allowed to do this. You and I may be less fortunate.† Manella frowned. â€Å"In what way, sir?† Seldon cleared his throat. â€Å"It is possible to argue that because you killed Gleb Andorin, he dropped his blaster, which became available to Mandell Gruber, who used it to kill Cleon. Therefore you bear a strong share of the responsibility of the crime and it may even be said that it was all prearranged.† â€Å"But that’s ridiculous. I am a member of the security establishment, fulfilling my duties-doing what I was ordered to do.† Seldon smiled sadly. â€Å"You’re arguing rationally and rationality is not going to be in fashion for a while. What’s going to happen now, in the absence of a legitimate successor to the Imperial throne, is that we are bound to have a military government.† (In later years, when Manella came to understand the workings of psychohistory, she wondered if Seldon had used the technique to work out what was going to happen, for the military rule certainly came to pass. At the time, however, he made no mention of his fledgling theory.) â€Å"If we do have a military government,† he went on, â€Å"then it will be necessary for them to establish a firm rule at once, crush any signs of disaffection, act vigorously and cruelly, even in defiance of rationality and justice. If they accuse you, Miss Dubanqua, of being part of a plot to kill the Emperor, you will be slaughtered, not as an act of justice but as a way of cowing the people of Trantor. â€Å"For that matter, they might say that I was part of the plot, too. After all, I went out to greet the new gardeners when it was not my place to do so. Had I not done so, there would have been no attempt to kill me, you would not have struck back, and the Emperor would have lived. Do you see how it all fits?† â€Å"I can’t believe they will do this.† â€Å"Perhaps they won’t. I’ll make them an offer that, just perhaps, they may not wish to refuse.† â€Å"What would that be?† â€Å"I will offer to resign as First Minister. They don’t want me, they won’t have me. But the fact is that I do have supporters at the Imperial Court and, even more important, people in the Outer Worlds who find me acceptable. That means that if the members of the Imperial Guard force me out, then even if they don’t execute me, they will have some trouble. If, on the other hand, I resign, stating that I believe the military government is what Trantor and the Empire needs, then I actually help them, you see?† He mused a little and said, â€Å"Besides, there is the little matter of psychohistory.† (That was the first time Manella had ever heard the word.) â€Å"What’s that?† â€Å"Something I’m working on. Cleon believed in its powers very strongly-more strongly than I did at the time-and there’s a considerable feeling in the court that psychohistory is, or might be, a powerful tool that could be made to work on the side of the government-whatever the government might be. â€Å"Nor does it matter if they know nothing about the details of the science. I’d rather they didn’t. Lack of knowledge can increase what we might call the superstitious aspect of the situation. In which case, they will let me continue working on my research as a private citizen. At least, I hope so. And that brings me to you.† â€Å"What about me?† â€Å"I’m going to ask as part of the deal that you be allowed to resign from** the security establishment and that no action be taken against you for** the events in connection with the assassination. I ought to be able to â€Å"But you’re talking about ending my career.† â€Å"Your career is, in any case, over. Even if the Imperial Guard doesn’t up an order of execution against you, can you imagine that you will Be allowed to continue working as a security officer?† â€Å"But what do I do? How do I make a living?† â€Å"I’ll take care of that, Miss Dubanqua. In all likelihood, I’ll go back to Streeling University, with a large grant for my psychohistorical research, I’m sure that I can find a place for you.† Manella, round-eyed, said, â€Å"Why should you-â€Å" Seldon said, â€Å"I can’t believe you’re asking. You saved Raych’s life and own. Is it conceivable that I don’t owe you anything?† And it was as he said. Seldon resigned gracefully from the post he had held for ten years. He was given a fulsome letter of appreciation for his services by the just-formed military government, a junta led by certain members of the Imperial Guard and the armed forces. He returned to Streeling University and Manella Dubanqua, relieved of her own post as security officer, went with Seldon and his family. 4 Raych came in, blowing on his hands. â€Å"I’m all for deliberate variety in the weather. You don’t want things under a dome to always be the same. Today though, they made it just a little too cold and worked up a wind, besides. I think it’s about time someone complained to weather control.† â€Å"I don’t know that it’s weather control’s fault,† said Seldon. â€Å"It’s getting harder to control things in general.† â€Å"I know. Deterioration.† Raych brushed his thick black mustache with the back of his hand. He did that often, as though he had never quite managed to get over the few months during which he had been mustacheless in Wye. He had also put on a little weight around the middle and, overall, had come to seem very comfortable and middleclass. Even his Dahl accent had faded somewhat. He took off his light coverall and said, â€Å"And how’s the old birthday boy?† â€Å"Resenting it. Wait, wait, my son. One of these days, you’ll be celebrating your fortieth birthday. We’ll see how funny you’ll think that is.† â€Å"Not as funny as sixty.† â€Å"Stop joking,† said Manella, who had been chafing Raych’s hands, trying to warm them. Seldon spread his own hands. â€Å"We’re doing the wrong thing, Raych. Your wife is of the opinion that all this talk about my turning sixty has sent little Wanda into a decline over the possibility of my dying.† â€Å"Really?† said Raych. â€Å"That accounts for it, then. I stopped in to see her and she told me at once, before I even had a chance to say a word, that she had had a bad dream. Was it about your dying?† â€Å"Apparently,† said Seldon. â€Å"Well, she’ll get over that. No way of stopping bad dreams.† â€Å"I’m not dismissing it that easily,† said Manella. â€Å"She’s brooding over it and that’s not healthy. I’m going to get to the bottom of this.† â€Å"As you say, Manella,† said Raych agreeably. â€Å"You’re my dear wife and whatever you say-about Wanda-goes.† And he brushed his mustache again. His dear wife! It hadn’t been so easy to make her his dear wife. Raych remembered his mother’s attitude toward the possibility. Talk about nightmares. It was he who had the periodic nightmares in which he had to face down the furious Dors Venabili once more. 5 Raych’s first clear memory, after emerging from his desperance-induced ordeal, was that of being shaved. He felt the vibrorazor moving along his cheek and he said weakly, â€Å"Don’t cut anywhere near my upper lip, barber. I want my mustache back.† The barber, who had already received his instructions from Seldon held up a mirror to reassure him. Dors Venabili, who was sitting at his bedside, said, â€Å"Let him work, Raych. Don’t excite yourself.† Raych’s eyes turned toward her momentarily and he was quiet. When the barber left, Dors said, â€Å"How do you feel, Raych?† â€Å"Rotten,† he muttered. â€Å"I’m so depressed, I can’t stand it.† â€Å"That’s the lingering effect of the desperance you’ve been dosed with. The effects will wash out.† â€Å"I can’t believe it. How long has it been?† â€Å"Never mind. It will take time. You were pumped full of it.† He looked around restlessly. â€Å"Has Manella been to see me?† â€Å"That woman?† (Raych was getting used to hearing Dors speak of Manella with those words and in that tone of voice.) â€Å"No. You’re not fit for visitors yet.† Interpreting the look on Raych’s face, Dors quickly added, â€Å"I’m an exception because I’m your mother, Raych. Why would you want that woman to see you, anyway? You’re in no condition to be seen.† â€Å"All the more reason to see her,† muttered Raych. â€Å"I want her to see me at my worst.† He then turned to one side dispiritedly. â€Å"I want to sleep.† Dors Venabili shook her head. Later that day she said to Seldon â€Å"I don’t know what we’re going to do about Raych. Hari. He’s quite unreasonable.† Seldon said, â€Å"He’s not well, Dors. Give the young man a chance.† â€Å"He keeps muttering about that woman. Whatever her name is.† â€Å"Manella Dubanqua. It’s not a hard name to remember.† â€Å"I think he wants to set up housekeeping with her. Live with her. Marry her.† Seldon shrugged. â€Å"Raych is thirty-old enough to make up his own mind.† â€Å"As his parents, we have something to say-surely.† Hari sighed. â€Å"And I’m sure you’ve said it, Dors. And once you’ve said it, I’m sure he’ll do as he wishes.† â€Å"Is that your final word? Do you intend to do nothing while he makes plans to marry a woman like that?† â€Å"What do you expect me to do, Dors? Manella saved Raych’s life. Do you expect him to forget that? She saved mine, too, for that matter.† That seemed to feed Dors’s anger. She said, â€Å"And you also saved her. The score is even.† â€Å"I didn’t exactly-â€Å" â€Å"Of course you did. The military rascals who now run the Empire would have slaughtered her if you didn’t step in and sell them your resignation and your support in order to save her.† â€Å"Though I may have evened the score, which I don’t think I have, Raych has not. And, Dors dear, I would be very careful when it came to using unfortunate terms to describe our government. These times are not going to be as easy as the times when Cleon ruled and there will always be informers to repeat what they hear you say.† â€Å"Never mind that. I don’t like that woman. I presume that, at least, is permissible.† â€Å"Permissible, certainly, but of no use.† Hari looked down at the floor, deep in thought. Dors’s usually unfathomable black eyes were positively flashing in anger. Hari looked up. â€Å"What I’d like to know, Dors, is why? Why do you dislike Manella so? She saved our lives. If it had not been for her quick action, both Raych and I would be dead.† Dors snapped back, â€Å"Yes, Hari. I know that better than anyone. And if she had not been there, I would not have been able to do a thing to prevent your murder. I suppose you think I should be grateful. But every time I look at that woman, I am reminded of my failure. I know these feelings are not truly rational-and that is something I can’t explain. So do not ask me to like her, Hari. I cannot.† But the next day even Dors had to back down when the doctor said, â€Å"Your son wishes to see a woman named Manella.† â€Å"He’s in no condition to see visitors,† snapped Dors. â€Å"On the contrary. He is. He’s doing quite well. Besides, he insists and is doing so most strenuously. I don’t know that we’d be wise to refuse him.† So they brought in Manella and Raych greeted her effusively and with the first faint sign of happiness since he had arrived at the hospital. He made an unmistakable small gesture of dismissal at Dors. Lips tightened, she left. And the day came when Raych said, â€Å"She’ll have me, Mom.† Dors said, â€Å"Do you expect me to be surprised, you foolish man? Of course she’ll have you. You’re her only chance, now that she’s been disgraced, ousted from the security establishment†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Raych said, â€Å"Mom, if you’re trying to lose me, this is exactly the way of doing it. Don’t say things like that.† â€Å"I’m only thinking of your welfare.† â€Å"I’ll think of my own good, thank you. I’m no one’s ticket to respectability-if you’ll stop to think of it. I’m not exactly handsome. I’m short. Dad isn’t First Minister anymore and I talk solid lower-class. What’s there for her to be proud of in me? She can do a lot better, but she wants me. And let me tell you, I want her.† â€Å"But you know what she is.† â€Å"Of course I know what she is. She’s a woman who loves me. She’s the woman I love. That’s what she is.† â€Å"And before you fell in love with her, what was she? You know some of what she had to do while undercover in Wye you were one of her ‘assignments.’ How many others were there? Are you able to live with her past? With what she did in the name of duty? Now you can afford to be idealistic. But someday you will have your first quarrel with her-or your second or your nineteenth-and you’ll break down and say, ‘You-**† Raych shouted angrily, â€Å"Don’t say that! When we fight, I’ll call her unreasonable, irrational, nagging, whining, inconsiderate-a million adjectives that will fit the situation. And she’ll have words for me. But they’ll all be sensible words that can be withdrawn when the fight is over.† â€Å"You think so-but just wait till it happens.† Raych had turned white. He said, â€Å"Mother, you’ve been with Father now for almost twenty years. Father is a hard man to disagree with, but there have been times when you two have argued. I’ve heard you. In all those twenty years, has he ever called you by any name that would in any way compromise your role as human being? For that matter, have I done so? Can you conceive of me doing so now-no matter how angry I get?† Dors struggled. Her face did not show emotion in quite the same way that Raych’s did or Seldon’s would, but it was clear that she was momentarily incapable of speech. â€Å"In fact,† said Raych, pushing his advantage (and feeling horrible at doing so) â€Å"the fact of the matter is that you are jealous because Manella saved Dad’s life. You don’t want anyone to do that but you. Well, you had no chance to do so. Would you prefer it if Manella had not shot Andorin-if Dad had died? And me, too?† Dors said in a choked voice, â€Å"He insisted on going out to meet the gardeners alone. He would not allow me to come.† â€Å"But that wasn’t Manella’s fault.† â€Å"Is that why you want to marry her? Gratitude?† â€Å"No. Love.† And so it was, but Manella said to Raych after the ceremony, â€Å"Your mother may have attended the wedding because you insisted, Raych, but she looked like one of those thunderclouds they sometimes send sailing under the dome.† Raych laughed. â€Å"She doesn’t have the face to be a thundercloud. You’re just imagining it.† â€Å"Not at all. How will we ever get her to give us a chance?† â€Å"We’ll just be patient. She’ll get over it.† But Dors Venabili didn’t. Two years after the wedding, Wanda was born. Dors’s attitude toward the child was all Raych and Manella could have wanted, but Wanda’s mother remained â€Å"that woman† to Raych’s mother. How to cite Forward the Foundation Chapter 15, Essay examples

Assignment of Global Financial Crisis-Free-Sample-Myassignment

Questions: 1.What was the main cause of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) and why it has spread Internationally? Do you believe that it could have been prevented? 2.One of the tools Australia and many other countries have used to fight the recession trends was to cut cash rates. The Reserve Bank of Australia has itself cut the cash rate from 6.75% in January 2008 to 2% in January 2016. Why do you believe central banks all over the world are using this tool to fight the recession in their Economies? Do you believe it has been efficient in Australia and globally? 3.The article has mentioned the slow down in the Chinese Economy and its Impact on Australia. Why do you believe Australia cares so much about what is happening in China? Answers: 1.The global financial crisis is believed to start in July, 2007 with credit crunch. The loss of confidence by the US investors led to the liquidity crisis. For this reason, US Federal Bank injected a huge amount of capital into the financial market. However, in 2008, the situation got much worse as the stock market crashed around the world. What follows in turn, has been discussed in the following section. Sub-Prime Crisis: According to the critics, the main reason for the global financial crisis is due to the fact that borrowers were not being able to repay the mortgage loan (Hass and Lelyveld 2014). Housing market in the US had suffered largely as most of the home owners who had taken their mortgage loan were unable to repay. As the large number of borrowers defaulted on loan, it was quite difficult for the bank to obtain those loans from them. As housing collapse, this situation acted as a trigger for global financial crisis. Moreover, another main reason for global financial crisis is because of three rating agencies Standard Poor's, Fitch, and Moody's failed to organize subprime security as investment grade. This would further trigger the crisis as those famous rating agencies were paid to rate securities (Hass and Lelyveld 2014). Thirdly, due to the higher food and petrol prices in the summer of 2008, it led to the crisis of market led growth which in turn led to the global financial crisis. Ther efore, in total, 2008 global financial crisis occurred due to the convergence of different forces along with social, economical and political (Vazquez and Federico 2015). Financial crisis spread like epidemics. Several countries were affected due to the US financial crisis. Foreign banks bought collateralized debt. Many of these loans were rebundled and sold to the various financial institutions across the world (Vazquez and Federico 2015). Moreover, all the international banking systems are internally linked. If some bank started losing money, it has the impact in their international banking system. Therefore, it was difficult for firms and consumers to borrow from the banks. This reduction in lending led to the further decrease in aggregate demand (Claessens and Van Horen 2015). Therefore, those countries do not have any exposure to subprime lending also affected by this credit crunch. On the other hand, during this recession, global export fell. Countries experienced a drastic reduction in exports. This would spread to the global recession. Further, this financial crisis, negatively affected the consumer led to the lower financial growth (Hass and Lelyveld 2014). The US Federal Reserve and then Bush administrator could have been prevented the global recession if they considered the early warning signs. In the late 2006, for the first time, the commerce department revealed that housing rate dropped by 28% in that year (Milner, Niven and LaMontagne 2015). However, the US government were unable to predict that the further slump of home sale in the coming few months as it did not happen since great depression. In fact, as per the Beige report, the Fed claimed that their economy is strong enough to combat with the price slump (Milner, Niven and LaMontagne 2015). In that year, for the second time Fed government ignored the warning (Claessens and Van Horen 2015). This time it was the inverted yield curve for US treasury notes. Inverted yield treasury notes refer when short-term treasury notes are higher than the long term treasury notes. Normally, the yield curve was inverted shaped before the past recessions of 2001, 1991 and 1981(Milner, Niven and LaMontagne 2015). Critics ignored this sign as interest rates were comparatively lower than in the prior recessions. They assumed that housing price would again increase as Fed cut down the interest rate. However, this was not the case. 2.The Reserve Bank of Australia had announced to cut down the interest rate by full percentage points in order to combat the global financial crisis. Their lending rate was lowered by full 100 basis points since 1992. Due to the cut in the cash rates, all the major Australian banks lowered their home loan rate by 80 basis points (Goh et al. 2015). The reasons behind the steep cut in the interest rate have been discussed in the following section. The continuous rise in the stock market due to the drastic cut in the interest rate helps to stimulate the Australian market. The SP/ASX200 share index fluctuates around 3% before closing to 1.7% points (Goh et al. 2015). Wall Street and major European markets dipped overnight on growing concerns of a sudden breakdown in the global economy (Allen 2016). Australian dollar which has increased to around 10 US cents has been reduced to 2 US cents due to the cut in the cash rates (Lins, Servaes and Tamayo 2015). Another tool used by the RBA to cut the cash rate is by buying the treasury securities. As the price of bonds and securities increased, demand for this product also increased which pushes up the price. In fact, as per Lee McPheters, a research professor and director of W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University, when the securities price increases, the fixed return as a percent will be lower (Justiniano, Primiceri and Tambalotti 2015). Although government uses several tools in order to control the interest rates, it does not control it. During the recession period, consumers tend to save more rather than spend the entire money. As a result of this, demand for credit falls and that in turn leads the RBA government to cut the cash rates. Apart from that, RBA government cut the interest rate due to the fear of deflation. As per the Australian Bureau of Statistics, inflation increased about 1.7% per year (Justiniano, Primiceri and Tambalotti 2015). For this reason, RBA government concerned about the rising Australian dollar resulted of cutting the interest rate by full basis points (Bordo and Haubrich 2017). As per the RBAs policy of cutting down the interest rate to a record low helps to come out of global recessions; however, on the other hand, as per the Keri Phillips reports, Australian economy went towards a rough phase due to the cut in the cash rates. Australian Central Bank, RBA has been responsible for the charge of monetary policy since the financial deregulation in 1980s. Through adjusting the interest rate they adjust the money moving into the economy. The main objective of the RBAs cash rate cut is to stimulate economic growth (Bordo and Haubrich 2017). The reason is as the money is now cheaper to borrow; people will spend more money on consumption and investment. On the other hand, most economists estimate that 3% growth is needed to restrict the employment rate from rising. However, lowering down the interest rate to 2% results the expected rise in the unemployment rate (Goh et al. 2015). In fact, data shows that unemployment rate in Australia were at the highest level in the last 13 years (Lins, Servaes and Tamayo 2015). The figure also revealed that more than 28000 full time jobs were lost due to this, although this loss in the full time jobs was partially offset by the part time jobs. This cut in the interest rate also has an effect on the countrys currency. As currency rate decreases due to the cut in the cash rates, exports are more competitive. Therefore, in the global financial crisis scenario, other countries along with Australia tried to cut down the cash rate in order to expand their exports. 3.Sino-Australian relationship defines the relationship between Commonwealth of Australia and China (Greenglass et al. 2014). This relationship between the two nations has been growing continuously over the decades in terms of political, economic and social aspects. Australian economy has been able to survive the global financial crisis followed by huge supportive programs from China. Since the collapse of Lehman Brothers, Chinese economy has boomed and Australian economy had been hugely assisted from them. Australian business made huge profits from international trade deals with China in mining and agricultural sector. China also invests a huge amount in Australian economy and Australia exports more than 30% to China (Justiniano, Primiceri and Tambalotti 2015). Therefore, Chinas economic slowdown definitely affected Australian economy in a number of ways. Due to the Chinese economic downturn, international trade between the two countries might reduce, in fact Australian economy may face an oversupply of goods which means that Chinese investors abandoned from the Australian asset. In fact, Australian tourism economy could take a huge hit if Chinese consumer decides to reduce its spending (Feenstra, Li and Yu 2014). Therefore, it is necessary for the Australian economy to diverse its economic relationship with China in the sense that they should reduce their huge of Chinese mining resources. China being the biggest Australian trading partner, accounted for 34% of their export in agricultural and energy-related products and services (Borio 2014). In fact, over the last decades, Australian ranked as second in terms of Chinese direct investment. In fact, they receive $80bn in Chinese oversees direct investment (Borio 2014). Moreover, Chinese investment in Australian real estate sector has been increased over the last couple of years. As per the KPMG report, Chinese real estate investment has been increased to AU$ 6.85bn in 2015 (Philippon 2015). Although this real estate investment was solely focused on one Australian state New South Wales including Sydney which accounted for the total of 94% (Drezner 2014). Renewable energy and healthcare both are the Chinas next target market. In addition to this, Sino-Australia free-trade agreement has been signed on December, 2015. Based on the report, Australias duty free exports constituted for more than 86% (Feenstra, Li and Yu 2014). The same report estimated that it would increase to 94% in 2019 and further 96% in 2029 (Feenstra, Li and Yu 2014). Apart from that, Australian educational sector also have a huge impact on Chinese economy. As per the International Institute of education, more than 90,000 Chinese comes to Australia for the educational purpose (Borio 2014). Those students studying in Australia helps to stimulate the relationship cross-border business opportunities between the two nations. Australian mineral and mining sector are the mostly impacted from Chinese economy. In fact, the value of energy and minerals export from in Australia which was only 57% in 2007 has been increased to around 80% in 2009 (Philippon 2015). Although Chinese manufacturing sectors fell drastically due to the global recessions its general energy and minerals needs from Australia increased rapidly more than its economy (Drezner 2014). References: Allen, R.E., 2016.Financial crises and recession in the global economy. Edward Elgar Publishing. Baker, S.R., Bloom, N. and Davis, S.J., 2016. Measuring economic policy uncertainty.The Quarterly Journal of Economics,131(4), pp.1593-1636. Bordo, M.D. and Haubrich, J.G., 2017. Deep recessions, fast recoveries, and financial crises: Evidence from the American record.Economic Inquiry,55(1), pp.527-541. Borio, C., 2014. The financial cycle and macroeconomics: What have we learnt?.Journal of Banking Finance,45, pp.182-198. Claessens, S. and Van Horen, N., 2015. The impact of the global financial crisis on banking globalization.IMF Economic Review,63(4), pp.868-918. Drezner, D.W., 2014. The system worked: Global economic governance during the great recession.World Politics,66(1), pp.123-164. Drezner, D.W., 2014. The system worked: Global economic governance during the great recession.World Politics,66(1), pp.123-164. Feenstra, R.C., Li, Z. and Yu, M., 2014. Exports and credit constraints under incomplete information: Theory and evidence from China.Review of Economics and Statistics,96(4), pp.729-744. Goh, B.W., Li, D., Ng, J. and Yong, K.O., 2015. Market pricing of banks fair value assets reported under SFAS 157 since the 2008 financial crisis.Journal of Accounting and Public Policy,34(2), pp.129-145. Greenglass, E., Antonides, G., Christandl, F., Foster, G., Katter, J.K., Kaufman, B.E. and Lea, S.E., 2014. The financial crisis and its effects: Perspectives from economics and psychology.Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics,50, pp.10-12. Haas, R. and Lelyveld, I., 2014. Multinational banks and the global financial crisis: Weathering the perfect storm?.Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,46(s1), pp.333-364. Justiniano, A., Primiceri, G.E. and Tambalotti, A., 2016. Quantitative Modeling of the Financial Crisis A Simple Model of Subprime Borrowers and Credit Growth.The American Economic Review,106(5), pp.543-547. Lins, K.V., Servaes, H. and Tamayo, A., 2015. Social capital, trust, and firm performance during the financial crisis. Milner, A.J., Niven, H. and LaMontagne, A.D., 2015. Occupational class differences in suicide: evidence of changes over time and during the global financial crisis in Australia.BMC psychiatry,15(1), p.223. Philippon, Thomas. "Has the US finance industry become less efficient? On the theory and measurement of financial intermediation."The American Economic Review105, no. 4 (2015): 1408-1438. Vazquez, F. and Federico, P., 2015. Bank funding structures and risk: Evidence from the global financial crisis.Journal of banking finance,61, pp.1-14.

Friday, May 1, 2020

Musicassignment Essay Example For Students

Musicassignment Essay Concert Etude by Alexander Godlike and finally, The Debutante by Herbert L. Clarke. Unfortunately, the third composition had been cancelled on that day, so we could only hear 4 pieces out of the 5 songs. The structure of the instrument was different. In the first piece there were Just trumpets next to each other and a conductor in the front facing them. In the rest of the piece there was a pianist on the left side and a trumpet in the middle of the stage. The first composition was the An Overture and Finale performed by Keith Arbitrators, Amanda Confuses, Kelly Fabian, Paul Hearer, Matthew Michelin, Cortez Montanan, Angel Ortega, Jose Sanchez, and Nathan Shanghai. The piece started with an up-tempo tune and by Just a few trumpets, and the others have Joined later. When every trumpet Joined the tempo became slower. There were multiple tunes and changing rhythm during this piece but the main theme always came back. The melody was distinct. At the end of this piece they played in a lower pitch and everybody Joined again. The second piece was the Concerto for Trumpet, 1 . Allegro (sonata) originally by Joseph Haydn. The performers name was Jose Sanchez. This piece was performed with a piano accompaniment. The piano started with a nice tempo and then the trumpet followed the exact same rhythm as a response to the piano. It was like talking back to each other, like a conversation which was very enjoyable in my opinion. This was the main theme all over this piece. The tempo changed a several times but always got back to the main tempo. The piece was continuously played as always in a sonata. In the early 19th century the sonata form was defined, from a combination of previous practice and he works of important Classical composers, particularly Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, but composers such as Clementine also. The third composition was the Concert Etude originally composed by a Russian composer and pianist called Alexander Godlike, performed by Kelly Fabian. This classical piece enlivens the sparse concert repertoire of that instrument. The Concert Etude, opus 49 is a major technical work for Trumpet, played on many recitals, exams and festivals. Alexander Goddesss Concert Etude is a showpiece that required considerable skill in double-tonguing technique. Being from Russia, Goddesss harmonies are dense and dramatic, similar to other Russian composers during this time period, such as Dimmit Stochastic and Anton Rubberiest. This work has two primary themes heard throughout: the first is very rhythmic and the second is much more lyrical. The piece starts immediately with the A theme in the trumpet part. The piano helps outlines the phrases by getting more active at the end, and then at the start of the new period it takes a step back in complexity. Later in the piece the trumpet and piano begin to take turns with Misalignments By Gladiatorial name back to the main, opening theme. This type of changing goes through the entire piece. The second theme has a half-time feel, established by the half notes in the right hand of the piano. However, the pulse stays the same because of the running eighth notes in the left hand of the piano, while the trumpet melody mimics like the right hand of the piano. This secondary theme does not last long. The trumpet mostly plays in arpeggio. The ending is the softest dynamic in the entire piece. The last composition is The Debutante, originally composed by a well-known American ornate player, feature soloist, bandmaster, and composer Herbert L. Clarke in 1917, this time performed by Amanda Confuses. This is a a-Flat Cornet (Trumpet) solo with piano accompaniment. The Debutante was one of Clacks five most commonly performed solos. This piece is full of technical passages comprised of scales, arpeggios, and multiple tonguing. Two lyrical themes are played freely, and call to mind polite society of the earliest twentieth century. The term debutante refers to a young aristocratic woman who has reached adulthood and is introduced to society wrought a formal debut. .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .postImageUrl , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:hover , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:visited , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:active { border:0!important; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:active , .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10 .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3d70d59bea0cd18bc9344790c5366b10:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Importance of Music EssayThe composition starts with a piano solo then the trumpet joins and becomes the main instruments in the piece. Then we can hear a trumpet solo, similar to the piano solo performed in the beginning. Then the two instrument play together in a soft sound. I really liked the last two piece as a referential listener. It was fascinating to watch those students play together. I really like the sound of the piano and the trumpet together. Classical music allows you to experience a range of incredibly strong, sometimes overwhelming emotions.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Learning Pronouns - Beginner Level ESL Lesson Plan

Learning Pronouns - Beginner Level ESL Lesson Plan The use of pronouns often seeps into the lessons in a number of different aspects: Subject pronouns are discussed when forming and conjugating sentences in the various tenses, object pronouns are introduced through questions words such as who or by a discussion of transitive and intransitive verbs, possessive pronouns and adjectives also get thrown into the mix by discussing the question word whose, or when pointing out how the possessive adjective modifies the noun. I find it helpful to to wrap all these together in a single lesson, as well as the demonstrative pronouns this, that, these and those to help students understand the relationship between the various forms. The lesson comes in two parts: First, students review, identify and create a pronoun chart. Next, students begin to use the pronouns to refer to objects that they have placed on a table. Finally, once students have become relatively comfortable with using personal pronouns, they can add demonstrative pronouns to the mix. Here is an outline of the lesson. This lesson can be used as a means of review, or, as an introduction to the various uses of pronouns (and the possessive adjective) for exceptionally motivated classes. Aim: Develop a deeper understanding of personal and demonstrative pronouns Activity: Chart fill-in, personal object questioning Level: Beginning to lower-intermediate Outline: Reviewing the Forms with a Chart Write four sentences on the board each containing a different type of pronoun (or possessive adjective), preferably using the same person. For example:He has an interesting book.Give him that interesting book.Thats his interesting book.That interesting book is his.Point out the grammatical differences in form between each of these forms. If students have never studied these forms before in an overview, print out this pronoun chart or write on the board.Using the same sentence with minor variations, go through each pronoun and possessive form for various subjects. Ask students to provide the correct change for each sentence as a class.Once students have become comfortable with these changes, ask them to fill out the first chart providing the correct pronoun or adjective form. Understanding Demonstrative Pronouns Now that the explicit learning has been accomplished, its time for some fun. Place a table at the front or in the middle of the classroom.Ask each student to provide an object or objects on the table.Begin asking questions using the objects. At this point it is also a good idea to introduce the idea of demonstrative pronouns. First model the questions and answers: For example:Teacher: Whose is this backpack here? - That is Marcos backpack there.Is this Annas pencil? - No, that isnt Annas pencil.etc.Explain that this and that are used with single objects, these and those are used in the plural. Point out that this and these are used with objects that are here (or close by), and that and those are used objects there (or far away). Phrases such as this - here / that - there are helpful.Continue asking questions with this and these eliciting students responses of these and those. Real World Task to Tie it All Together Ask students to come forward and choose an item which does not belong to them. Each student should create four sentences about the object(s) they choose. For example:This is Annas pencil.She has a pencil.It is her pencil.The pencil is hers.I give her the pencil.(student walks over and hands the item back)Feel free to model this a few times until the students understand what is expected.Repeat with different personal objects. The activity of getting up and retrieving items while using the various forms will help students acquire the grammar through real world application. Pronoun Chart Subject Pronoun Object Pronoun Possessive Adjective Possessive Pronoun I you his hers its none we your theirs

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Global Variables in Ruby

Global Variables in Ruby Global Variables are variables that may be accessed from anywhere in the program regardless of scope. Theyre denoted by beginning with a $ (dollar sign) character. However, the use of global variables is often considered un-Ruby, and you will rarely see them. Defining Global Variables Global variables are defined and used like any other variable. To define them, simply assign a value to them and begin using them. But, as their name suggests, assigning to global variables from any point in the program has global implications. The following program demonstrates this. The method will modify a global variable, and that will affect how the second method runs. $speed 10 def accelerate $speed 100 end def pass_speed_trap if $speed 65 # Give the program a speeding ticket end end accelerate pass_speed_trap Unpopular So why is this un-Ruby and why dont you see global variables very often? Put simply, it breaks encapsulation. If any one class or method can modify the state of the global variables at will with no interface layer, any other classes or methods that rely on that global variable may behave in an unexpected and undesirable manner. Further, such interactions can be very difficult to debug. What modified that global variable and when? Youll be looking through quite a lot of code to find what did it, and that could have been avoided by not breaking the rules of encapsulation. But thats not to say that global variables are never used in Ruby. There are a number of special global variables with single-character names (a-la Perl) that can be used throughout your program. They represent the state of the program itself, and do things like modify the record and field separators for all gets methods. Global Variables $0 - This variable, denoted by $0 (thats a zero), holds the name of the top-level script being executed. In other words, the script file that was run from the command line, not the script file that holds the currently executing code. So, if script1.rb was run from the command line, it would hold script1.rb. If this script requires script2.rb, $0 in that script file would also be script1.rb. The name $0 mirrors the naming convention used in UNIX shell scripting for the same purpose.$* - The command-line arguments in an array denoted by $* (dollar sign and asterisk). For example, if you were to run ./script.rb arg1 arg2, then $* would be equivalent to %w{ arg1 arg2 }. This is equivalent to the special ARGV array and has a less descriptive name, so it is rarely used.$$ - The interpreters process ID, denoted by $$ (two dollar signs). Knowing ones own process ID is often useful in daemon programs (which run in the background, unattached from any terminal) or system services. However, this gets a bit more complicated when threads are involved, so be wary of using it blindly. $/ and $\ - These are the input and output record separators. When you read objects using gets and print them using puts, it uses these to know when a complete record has been read, or what to print between multiple records. By default, these should be the newline character. But since these affect the behavior of all IO objects, theyre rarely used, if at all. You may see them in smaller scripts where breaking the encapsulation rules is not an issue.$? - The exit status of the last child process executed. Of all the variables listed here, this is probably the most useful. The reason for this is simple: you cant get the exit status of child processes by their return value from the system method, only true or false. If you must know the actual return value of the child process, you need to use this special global variable. Again, the name of this variable is taken from the UNIX shells.$_ - The last string read by gets. This variable may be a point of confusion for those coming to Ruby f rom Perl. In Perl, the $_ variable means something similar, but totally different. In Perl, $_ holds the value of the last statement and in Ruby it holds the string returned by the previous gets invocation. Their usage is similar, but what they really hold is very different. You dont often see this variable either (come to think of it, you rarely see any of these variables), but you may see them in very short Ruby programs that process text. In short, youll rarely see global variables. Theyre often bad form (and un-Ruby) and only really useful in very small scripts, where the full implication of their use can be fully appreciated. There are a few special global variables that can be used, but for the most part, they arent used. You dont really need to know all that much about global variables to understand most Ruby programs, but you should at least know that theyre there.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Class inequality Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Class inequality - Essay Example To put the short story in context, the following statistic pertaining to academicians in Morocco raises a relevant point. Since 1981, average earnings for non-manual workers have increased by almost 40 per cent in Morocco; academicians earnings since then have increased by just one per cent, which means that their middle-class status is under threat, and theyre starting to wear a haunted, underclass look. But, as recent as the early 1970’s, things were looking much brighter for the middle classes. Back then it was believed that academic scholars are on a social parity with lawyers, only with access to more, and better, resources and with other trappings that bestow social status. But, the present state of affairs and the lack of enthusiasm for academic jobs paint a grim picture of the nature of class disparity within Morocco, which is related to the kind of disparity depicted by Abouzeid. For instance, the custodian says â€Å"My pay is very low. The Children are endlessly in need of things, costs keep rising and no one gives a damn about us† (The Discontented). This utterance clearly captures the sentiments expressed above about the state of the middle classes in Morocco. The labor unions, which have been pivotal in improving the working conditions of the working classes, have traditionally been very active in Moroccan politics. But the recent trend is unfavorable to the labor movement. The adverse trend is manifest in the kinds of youth conferences taking place across Morocco. One can see the difference: â€Å"The beer-bellied salt-of-the-earth types who still pervade the delegations of the old manual unions at labor unions could never be mistaken for the small businessmen and their wives with the conservative sections. One can hear the difference: many labor union delegates may be quaffing Chardonnay not bitter these days, but there is no equivalent of the upper-class baying for G-and-Ts which will echo

Monday, February 3, 2020

Marketing transportation homework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

Marketing transportation homework - Essay Example 2. The two logistic activities that I have settled on include the communication and the transaction processing in companies. The internet has influenced these sectors to a large extent, some being positive while others negative. For instance, communication has been improved and the presence of smart phones has enhanced even attendance in meetings without the presence of an individual. The transactions that exist and occur in businesses has developed to be online. Some issues like theft have come up as many individuals are lured into believing that the sellers are genuine while in real sense are being duped. These issues are quite surprising as one gets to realize that, just like any other solution, the internet has its demerits too. 3. There are many macro level challenges that have come up as a result of technological advancements. For instance, lack of good record keeping due to lack of attending meetings, the opposition to technological development faced by the managers from the employees. The other challenge includes the introduction of more portable devices yet this makes the information more insecure as the level of being prone to theft is much higher and increased. 1. The corporate level strategy is aimed at overseeing the management of the company, the objectives and aims of the business and the type of business in the company. The strategic level plays the role of intermediaries between the business and the managers. They develop strategies and match the needs with the people who will perform the functions to attain the goals of the company. The functional level is where the real work is done. This is the section whereby the logistics and calculations are performed in terms of the objectives of the company. 2. Logistic strategy is not directly connected to the corporate strategy but is influenced through the strategies of the business

Sunday, January 26, 2020

In-place Pile Foundation for a Tower-building Project

In-place Pile Foundation for a Tower-building Project CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction Pile foundations are used to carry a load and transfer the load of a given structure to the ground bearing, which is found below the ground at a considerable depth. The foundation consists of several piles and pile-caps. Pile foundations are generally long and lean, that transfers the structure load to the underlying soil (at a greater depth) or any rock having a great load-bearing ability. â€Å"The main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile caps. Depending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting characteristic piles are classified accordingly.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith). The objective of this project is to identify the design use of a cast-in-place pile foundation, for the tower-building project. The tower building project is called the Gemini Towers. The purpose of this construction (building) is to facilitate office spaces. This also resides on a rocky area. The building has been designed as per state-of-the-art designing concepts which are basically to attract foreign investors to invest in Oman. The Gemini Building has 1 basement, 1 ground and 19 floors. Cast-in-place concrete piles are shafts of concrete cast in thin shell pipes, top driven in the soil, and usually closed end. Such piles can provide up to a 200-kip capacity. The chief advantage over precast piles is the ease of changing lengths by cutting or splicing the shell. The material cost of cast-in-place piles is relatively low. They are not feasible when driving through hard soils or rock. 1.1 Aim The aim of this project is to design and propose cast in-place pile foundation for a tower-building project and study the efficiency for the same. To achieve this aim the following objective has to be achieved. 1.2 Objectives The objectives of this project are as following: To study the field soil condition, suitability of pile and investigate the soil. To study the advantages and efficiency of using cast-in-place pile for the building. To study the guidelines for the design of cast in-place structure according to BS 8004, 8110, 8002, etc. To design the pile foundation as per the guidelines and the soil conditions (analyse the load, calculate the moment and determine the length and diameter and reinforcement). To use computer structural designing program for performing design (CAD and STAD). 1.3 Methods The methods followed in preparing this project is by collecting the project plan and the soil investigation report. Then after that, research has been done on in-situ pile foundation type, to identify its characteristics. The next step is to study the pile designing criteria by referring to BS 8004, 8110 8002 codes to understand the guidelines, which shall be followed to accomplish the pile design. For this, the structural loads have to be analysed and identified using ultimate state design method. Then the design is processed depending on the data gathered on soil conditions, design loads and BS code guidelines. Thus, a proposal for the suitable pile will be prepared by identifying the reasons over the proposal. The commonest function of piles is to transfer a load that cannot be adequately supported at shallow depths to a depth where adequate support becomes available, also against uplift forces which cause cracks and other damages on superstructure. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2 Pile Foundation â€Å"Pile foundations are used extensively in bridges, high-rise buildings, towers and special structures. In practice, piles are generally used in groups to transmit a column load to a deeper and stronger soil stratum. Pile may respond to loading individually or as a group. In the latter case, the group and the surrounding soil will formulate a block to resist the column load. This may lead to a group capacity that is different from the total capacity of individual piles making up the group.† (Adel M. Hanna et al, 2004). â€Å"Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles. Piles are long and slender members which transfer the load to deeper soil or rock of high bearing capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity. The main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile caps. Depending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting characteristic piles are classified accordingly.† (Ascalew Abebe et al, 2005) 2.1 Functions of Piles The purposes of pile foundations are: to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground. to resist vertical, lateral and uplift load. â€Å"A structure can be founded on piles if the soil immediately beneath its base does not have adequate bearing capacity. If the results of site investigation show that the shallow soil is unstable and weak or if the magnitude of the estimated settlement is not acceptable a pile foundation may become considered. Further, a cost estimate may indicate that a pile foundation may be cheaper than any other compared ground improvement costs. Piles can also be used in normal ground conditions to resist horizontal loads. Piles are a convenient method of foundation for works over water, such as jetties or bridge piers.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide, by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith, 2003). 2.2 Classification of Piles 2.2.1 Classification of pile with respect to load transmission End-bearing. Friction-piles. Mixture of cohesion piles friction piles. 2.2.1.1 End bearing piles This type of piles is designed to transfer the structural load to a stable soil layer which is found at a greater depth below the ground. The load bearing capacity of this stratum is found by the soil penetration resistance from the pile-toe (as in figure 1.2.1.1). The pile normally has attributes of a normal column, and should be designed as per the guidelines. The pile will not collapse in a weak soil, and this should be studied only if a part of the given pile is unsupported. (Eg: If it is erected on water / air). Load transmission occurs through cohesion / friction, into the soil. At times, the soil around the pile may stick to the pile surface and starts â€Å"negative skin friction†. This phenomenon may have an inverse effect on the pile capacity. This is mainly caused due to the soil consolidation and ground water drainage. The pile depth is determined after reviewing the results from the soil tests and site investigation reports. 2.2.1.2 Friction piles (cohesion) The bearing capacity is calculated from the soil friction in contact with the pile shaft. (as in Figure 1.2.1.2). 2.2.1.3 Mixture of cohesion piles friction piles. This is an extended end-bearing pile, when the soil underneath it is not hard, which bears the load. The pile is driven deep into the soil to create efficient frictional resistance. A modified version of the end-bearing pile is to have enlarged bearing base on the piles. This can be achieved by immediately pushing a large portion of concrete into the soft soil layer right above the firm soil layer, to have an enlarged base. Similar result is made with bored-piles by creating a bell / cone at the bottom by the means of reaming tools. Bored piles are used as tension piles as they are provided with a bell which has a high tensile-strength. (as in figure 1.2.1.3) 2.3 Cast-in-Place Pile Foundation Cast-in-place piles are installed by driving to the desired penetration a heavy-section steel tube with its end temporarily closed. A reinforcing cage is next placed in a tube which is filled with concrete. The tube is withdrawn while placing the concrete or after it has been placed. In other types of pile, thin steel shells or precast concrete shells are driven by means of an internal mandrel, and concrete, with or without reinforcement, is placed in the permanent shells after withdrawing the mandrel. 2.3.1 Advantages Length of the pile can be freely altered to cater varying ground conditions. Soil removed during the boring process can be verified and further tests can be made on it. Large diameter installations are possible. End enlargements up to two or three diameters are possible in clays. Pile materials are independent during driving / handling. Can be installed to greater depths in the soil. Vibration-free and noise-free while installation. Can be installed in conditions of very low headroom. Ground shocks are completely nil. 2.3.2 Disadvantages Susceptible to necking or wasting in pressing ground. Concrete is not pumped under suitable conditions and cannot be inspected. The cement on the pile shaft will be washed up, if there is a sudden surge of waster from any pressure caused underground. Special techniques need to be used to ensure enlarged pile ends. Cannot be easily prolonged above ground-level especially in river and marine structures. Sandy soils may loosen due to boring methods and base grouting may be required for gravely soils to improve base resistance. Sinking piles may result in ground-loss, leading to settlement of nearby structures. CHAPTER 3 3 Load Distribution To a great extent the design and calculation (load analysis) of pile foundations is carried out using computer software. The following calculations are also performed, assuming the following conditions are met: The pile is rigid. The pile is pinned at the top and at the bottom. Each pile receives the load only vertically (i.e. axially applied). The force P acting on the pile is proportional to the displacement U due to compression. Therefore, P = k U Since P = E A E A = k U k = (E A ) / U Where: P = vertical load component k = material constant U = displacement E = elastic module of pile material A = cross-sectional area of pile (Figure 3 load on single pile) The length L should not necessarily be equal to the actual length of the pile. In a group of piles. If all piles are of the same material, have same cross-sectional area and equal length L, then the value of k is the same for all piles in the group 3.1 Pile foundations: vertical piles only 3.1.1 Neutral axis load The pile cap is causing the vertical compression U, whose magnitude is equal for all members of the group. If Q (the vertical force acting on the pile group) is applied at the neutral axis of the pile group, then the force on a single pile will be as follows: Pv = Q / n Where Pv = vertical component of the load on any pile from the resultant load Q n = number of vertical piles in the group (see figure 3.1.2) Q = total vertical load on pile group 3.1.2 Eccentric Load If the same group of piles are subjected to an eccentric load Q which is causing rotation around axis z (see fig 3.1b); then for the pile i at distance rxi from axis z: Ui = rxi . tanÃŽ ¸ ∠´ Ui = rxi ÃŽ ¸ => Pi = k . r xi . ÃŽ ¸ ÃŽ ¸ is a small angle ∠´ tanÃŽ ¸ ≈ ÃŽ ¸ (see figure 3.1.2). Pi = force (load on a single pile i). Ui = displacement caused by the eccentric force (load) Q. rxi = distance between pile and neutral axis of pile group. rxi positive measured the same direction as e and negative when in the opposite direction. e = distance between point of intersection of resultant of vertical and horizontal loading with underside of pile. (Figure 3.1.2 – Example of a pile foundation – vertical piles) The sum of all the forces acting on the piles should be zero ⇔ ⇔ Mxi = Pi . rxi = k . rxi . ÃŽ ¸ rxi = k . ÃŽ ¸ r2xi => => Mxi = From previous equation, Mz = ÃŽ £Mz Applying the same principle, in the x direction we get equivalent equation. If we assume that the moment MX and MZ generated by the force Q are acting on a group of pile, then the sum of forces acting on a single pile will be as follows: If we dividing each term by the cross-sectional area of the pile, A, we can establish the working stream ÏÆ': CHAPTER 4 4 Load on Pile 4.1 Introduction â€Å"Piles can be arranged in a number of ways so that they can support load imposed on them. Vertical piles can be designed to carry vertical loads as well as lateral loads. If required, vertical piles can be combined with raking piles to support horizontal and vertical forces.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) â€Å"Often, if a pile group is subjected to vertical force, then the calculation of load distribution on single pile that is member of the group is assumed to be the total load divided by the number of piles in the group.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) However, if a given pile group is subjected to eccentric vertical load or combination of lateral vertical load that can start moment force. Proper attention should be given during load distribution calculation. 4.2 Pile Arrangement â€Å"Normally, pile foundations consist of pile cap and a group of piles. The pile cap distributes the applied load to the individual piles which, in turn, transfer the load to the bearing ground. The individual piles are spaced and connected to the pile cap. Or tie beams and trimmed in order to connect the pile to the structure at cut-off level, and depending on the type of structure and eccentricity of the load, they can be arranged in different patterns.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) (Figure 2.2 Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith)) In this section, considering pile/soil interaction, calculations on the bearing capacity of single piles subjected to compressive axial load has been described. During pile design, the following factors should be taken into consideration: Pile material compression and tension capacity. Deformation area of pile, bending moment capacity. Condition of the pile at the top and the end of the pile. Eccentricity of the load applied on the pile. Soil characteristics. Ground water level. 4.3 The behaviour of piles under load Piles are designed in line with the calculations based on load bearing capacity. It is based on the application of final axial-load, as per the given soil conditions at the site, within hours after the installation. This ultimate load capacity can be determined by either: The use of empirical formula to predict capacity from soil properties determined by testing. or Load test on piles at the site. When increasing compressive load is applied on the pile, the pile soil system reacts in a linear elastic way to point A on the above figure (load settlement). The pile head rebounds to the original level if the load realises above this point. â€Å"When the load is increase beyond point A there is yielding at, or close to, the pile-soil interface and slippage occurs until point B is reached, when the maximum skin friction on the pile shaft will have been mobilised. If the load is realised at this stage the pile head will rebound to point C, the amount of permanent settlement being the distance OC. When the stage of full mobilisation of the base resistance is reached (point D), the pile plunges downwards without any farther increase of load, or small increases in load producing large settlements.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide). 4.4 Geotechnical design methods In order to separate their behavioural responses to applied pile load, soils are classified as either granular / noncohesive or clays/cohesive. The generic formulae used to predict soil resistance to pile load include empirical modifying factors which can be adjusted according to previous engineering experience of the influence on the accuracy of predictions of changes in soil type and other factors such as the time delay before load testing. From figure 4.1b, the load settlement response is composed of two separate components, the linear elastic shaft friction Rs and non-linear base resistance Rb. The concept of the separate evaluation of shaft friction and base resistance forms the bases of static or soil mechanics calculation of pile carrying capacity. The basic equations to be used for this are written as: Q = Qb + Qs Wp Rc = Rb + Rs Wp Rt = Rs + Wp Where: Q = Rc = the ultimate compression resistance of the pile. Qb = Rb = base resistance. Qs = Rs = shaft resistance. Wp = weight of the pile. Rt = tensile resistance of pile. In terms of soil mechanics theory, the ultimate skin friction on the pile shaft is related to the horizontal effective stress acting on the shaft and the effective remoulded angle of friction between the pile and the clay and the ultimate shaft resistance Rs can be evaluated by integration of the pile-soil shear strength Ï€a over the surface area of the shaft. Ï„a = Ca + ÏÆ' n tanφ a Where: ÏÆ'n = Ks ÏÆ'v ∠´ Ï„a = Ca + KS ÏÆ'v tanφa where: p = pile perimeter L = pile length φ = angle of friction between pile and soil Ks = coefficient of lateral pressure The ultimate bearing capacity, Rb, of the base is evaluated from the bearing capacity theory: Ab = area of pile base. C = undrained strength of soil at base of pile. NC = bearing capacity factor. CHAPTER 5 5 Calculating the resistance of piles to compressive loads 5.1 Cast in Place Piles – Shaft resistance These piles are installed by drilling through soft overburden onto a strong rock the piles can be regarded as end-bearing elements and their working load is determined by the safe working stress on the pile shaft at the point of minimum cross-section, or by code of practice requirements. Bored piles drilled down for some depth into weak or weathered rocks and terminated within these rocks act partly as friction and partly as end-bearing piles. The author Duncan C. Wyllie, gives a detailed account of the factors governing the development of shaft friction over the depth of the rock socket. The factors which govern the bearing capacity and settlement of the pile are summarized as the following: The length to diameter ratio of the socket. The strength and elastic modulus of the rock around and beneath the socket. The condition of the side walls, that is, roughness and the presence of drill cuttings or bentonite slurry. Condition of the base of the drilled hole with respect to removal of drill cuttings and other loose debris. Layering of the rock with seams of differing strength and moduli. Settlement of the pile in relation to the elastic limit of the side-wall strength. Creep of the material at the rock/concrete interface resulting in increasing settlement with time. The effect of the length/diameter ratio of the socket is shown in Figure 5.1a, for the condition of the rock having a higher elastic modulus than the concrete. It will be seen that if it is desired to utilize base resistance as well as socket friction the socket length should be less than four pile diameters. The high interface stress over the upper part of the socket will be noted. The condition of the side walls is an important factor. In a weak rock such as chalk, clayey shale, or clayey weathered marl, the action of the drilling tools is to cause softening and slurrying of the walls of the borehole and, in the most adverse case, the shaft friction corresponds to that typical of a smooth-bore hole in soft clay. In stronger and fragmented rocks the slurrying does not take place to the same extent, and there is a tendency towards the enlargement of the drill hole, resulting in better keying of the concrete to the rock. If the pile borehole is drilled through soft clay this soil may be carried down by the drilling tools to fill the cavities and smear the sides of the rock socket. This behaviour can be avoided to some extent by inserting a casing and sealing it into the rock-head before continuing the drilling to form the rock socket, but the interior of the casing is likely to be heavily smeared with clay which will be carried down by the drilling tools into the rock socket. As mentioned in Duncan C. Wyllie, suggests that if bentonite is used as a drilling fluid the rock socket shaft friction should be reduced to 25% of that of a clean socket unless tests can be made to verify the actual friction which is developed. It is evident that the keying of the shaft concrete to the rock and hence the strength of the concrete to rock bond is dependent on the strength of the rock. Correlations between the unconfined compression strength of the rock and rock socket bond stress have been established by Horvarth(4.50), Rosenberg and Journeaux(4.51), and Williams and Pells(4.52). The ultimate bond stress, fs, is related to the average unconfined compression strength, quc, by the equation: Where ÃŽ ± = reduction factor relating to, quc as shown in Figure 5.1b ÃŽ ² = correction factor associated with cut-off spacing in the mass of rock as shown in Figure 5.1c. The curve of Williams and Pells in Figure 5.1b is higher than the other two, but the ÃŽ ² factor is unity in all cases for the Horvarth and the Rosenberg and Journeaux curves. It should also be noted that the ÃŽ ± factors for all three curves do not allow for smearing of the rock socket caused by dragdown of clay overburden or degradation of the rock. The ÃŽ ² factor is related to the mass factor, j, which is the ratio of the elastic modulus of the rock mass to that of the intact rock as shown in Figure 5.1d. If the mass factor is not known from loading tests or seismic velocity measurements, it can be obtained approximately from the relationships with the rock quality designation (RQD) or the discontinuity spacing quoted by Hobbs (4.53) as follows: 5.2 End Bearing Capacity Sometimes piles are driven to an underlying layer of rock. In such cases, the engineer must evaluate the bearing capacity of the rock. The ultimate unit point resistance in rock (Goodman, 1980) is approximately. N = tan2 (45 + / 2) qu = unconfined compression strength of rock = drained angle of friction Table 5.2a Table 5.2b The unconfined compression strength of rock can be determined by laboratory tests on rock specimens collected during field investigation. However, extreme caution should be used in obtaining the proper value of qu, because laboratory specimens usually are small in diameter. As the diameter of the specimen increases, the unconfined compression strength decreases a phenomenon referred to as the scale effect. For specimens larger than about 1 m (3f) in diameter, the value of qu remains approximately constant. There appears to be fourfold to fivefold reduction of the magnitude of qu in the process. The scale effect in rock is caused primarily by randomly distributed large and small fractures and also by progressive ruptures along the slip lines. Hence, we always recommend that: The above table (Table 5.2a) lists some representative values of (laboratory) unconfined compression strengths of rock. Representative values of the rock friction angle are given in the above table (Table 5.2b). A factor of safety of at least 3 should be used to determine the allowable point bearing capacity of piles. Thus: CHAPTER 6 6 Pile Load Test (Vesic’s Method) A number of settlement analysis methods for single piles are available. These methods may be broadly classified into three categories: Elastic continuum methods Load–transfer methods Numerical methods Examples of such methods are the elastic methods proposed by Vesic (1977) and Poulos and Davis (1980), the simplified elastic methods proposed by Randolph and Wroth (1978) and Fleming et al. (1992), the nonlinear load–transfer methods proposed by Coyle and Reese (1966) and McVay et al. (1989), and the numerical methods based on advanced constitutive models of soil behaviour proposed by Jardine et al. (1986). In this paper, three representative methods are adopted for the calibration exercise: the elastic method proposed by Vesic (1977), the simplified analysis method proposed by Fleming et al. (1992), and a nonlinear load–transfer method (McVay et al. 1989) implemented in program FB-Pier (BSI 2003). In Vesic’s method, the settlement of a pile under vertical loading, S, includes three components: S = S1 + S2 + S3 Where: S1 is the elastic pile compression. S2 is the pile settlement caused by the load at the pile toe. S3 is the pile settlement caused by the load transmitted along the pile shaft. If the pile material is assumed to be elastic, the elastic pile compression can be calculated by: S1 = (Qb + ÃŽ ¾Qs)L / (ApEp) Where Qb and Qs are the loads carried by the pile toe and pile shaft, respectively; Ap is the pile cross-section area; L is the pile length; Ep is the modulus of elasticity of the pile material; and ÃŽ ¾ is a coefficient depending on the nature of unit friction resistance distribution along the pile shaft. In this work, the distribution is assumed to be uniform and hence ÃŽ ¾ = 0.5. Settlement S2 may be expressed in a form similar to that for a shallow foundation. S2 = (qbD / Esb) (1-v2)Ib Where: D is the pile width or diameter qb is the load per unit area at the pile toe qb = Qb /Ab Ab is the pile base area Esb is the modulus of elasticity of the soil at the pile toe Ñ µ is Poisson’s ratio Ib is an influence factor, generally Ib = 0.85 S3 = (Qs / pL) (D / Ess) (1 – Ñ µ2) Is Where: p is the pile perimeter. Ess is the modulus of elasticity of the soil along the pile shaft. Is is an influence factor. The influence factor Is can be calculated by an empirical relation (Vesic 1977). Is = 2 + 0.35 √(L/D) With Vesic’s method, both Qb and Qs are required. In this report, Qb and Qs are obtained using two methods. In the first method (Vesic’s method I), these two loads are determined from a nonlinear load–transfer method, which will be introduced later. In the second method (Vesic’s method II), these two loads are determined using empirical ratios of Qb to the total load applied on pile Q based on field test data. Shek (2005) reported load–transfer in 14 test piles, including 11 piles founded in soil and 3 piles founded on rock. The mean ratios of Qb /Q for the piles founded in soil and the piles founded on rock are summarized in Table 3 and applied in this calibration exercise. The mean values of Qb /Q at twice the design load and the failure load are very similar. Hence, the average of the mean values is adopted for calibration at both twice the design load and the failure load. In the Fleming et al. method, the settlement of a pile is given by the following approximate closed-form solution (Fleming et al. 1992): Where: n = rb / r0, r0 and rb are the radii of the pile shaft and pile toe, respectively (for H-piles, Ï€ro2 = Ï€rb2 = Dh, h is the depth of the pile cross-section) ÃŽ ¾G = GL/Gb, GL is the shear modulus of the soil at depth L, and Gb is the shear modulus of the soil beneath the pile toe. Ï  = Gave/GL, Gave is the average shear modulus of the soil along the pile shaft p is the pile stiffness ratio p = Ep / GL; ÃŽ ¶ = ln{[0.25 +(2.5Ï (1 – v) –0.25) ÃŽ ¾G] L/r0}; É ¥L = (2/)1/2(L/r0). If the slenderness ratio L/r0 is less than 0.5p1/2 (L/r0) the pile may be treated as effectively rigid and eq. [7] then reduces to: If the slenderness ratio L/r0 is larger than 3Ï€p1/2, the pile may be treated as infinitely long, and eq. [7] then reduces to: In this case, GL’ is the soil shear modulus at the bottom of the active pile length Lac, where Lac = 3r0p1/2. In the nonlinear load–transfer method implemented in FB-Pier, the axial –Z curve for modelling the pile–soil interaction along the pile is given as (McVay et al. 1989) In-place Pile Foundation for a Tower-building Project In-place Pile Foundation for a Tower-building Project CHAPTER 1 1 Introduction Pile foundations are used to carry a load and transfer the load of a given structure to the ground bearing, which is found below the ground at a considerable depth. The foundation consists of several piles and pile-caps. Pile foundations are generally long and lean, that transfers the structure load to the underlying soil (at a greater depth) or any rock having a great load-bearing ability. â€Å"The main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile caps. Depending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting characteristic piles are classified accordingly.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith). The objective of this project is to identify the design use of a cast-in-place pile foundation, for the tower-building project. The tower building project is called the Gemini Towers. The purpose of this construction (building) is to facilitate office spaces. This also resides on a rocky area. The building has been designed as per state-of-the-art designing concepts which are basically to attract foreign investors to invest in Oman. The Gemini Building has 1 basement, 1 ground and 19 floors. Cast-in-place concrete piles are shafts of concrete cast in thin shell pipes, top driven in the soil, and usually closed end. Such piles can provide up to a 200-kip capacity. The chief advantage over precast piles is the ease of changing lengths by cutting or splicing the shell. The material cost of cast-in-place piles is relatively low. They are not feasible when driving through hard soils or rock. 1.1 Aim The aim of this project is to design and propose cast in-place pile foundation for a tower-building project and study the efficiency for the same. To achieve this aim the following objective has to be achieved. 1.2 Objectives The objectives of this project are as following: To study the field soil condition, suitability of pile and investigate the soil. To study the advantages and efficiency of using cast-in-place pile for the building. To study the guidelines for the design of cast in-place structure according to BS 8004, 8110, 8002, etc. To design the pile foundation as per the guidelines and the soil conditions (analyse the load, calculate the moment and determine the length and diameter and reinforcement). To use computer structural designing program for performing design (CAD and STAD). 1.3 Methods The methods followed in preparing this project is by collecting the project plan and the soil investigation report. Then after that, research has been done on in-situ pile foundation type, to identify its characteristics. The next step is to study the pile designing criteria by referring to BS 8004, 8110 8002 codes to understand the guidelines, which shall be followed to accomplish the pile design. For this, the structural loads have to be analysed and identified using ultimate state design method. Then the design is processed depending on the data gathered on soil conditions, design loads and BS code guidelines. Thus, a proposal for the suitable pile will be prepared by identifying the reasons over the proposal. The commonest function of piles is to transfer a load that cannot be adequately supported at shallow depths to a depth where adequate support becomes available, also against uplift forces which cause cracks and other damages on superstructure. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2 Pile Foundation â€Å"Pile foundations are used extensively in bridges, high-rise buildings, towers and special structures. In practice, piles are generally used in groups to transmit a column load to a deeper and stronger soil stratum. Pile may respond to loading individually or as a group. In the latter case, the group and the surrounding soil will formulate a block to resist the column load. This may lead to a group capacity that is different from the total capacity of individual piles making up the group.† (Adel M. Hanna et al, 2004). â€Å"Pile foundations are the part of a structure used to carry and transfer the load of the structure to the bearing ground located at some depth below ground surface. The main components of the foundation are the pile cap and the piles. Piles are long and slender members which transfer the load to deeper soil or rock of high bearing capacity avoiding shallow soil of low bearing capacity. The main types of materials used for piles are Wood, steel and concrete. Piles made from these materials are driven, drilled or jacked into the ground and connected to pile caps. Depending upon type of soil, pile material and load transmitting characteristic piles are classified accordingly.† (Ascalew Abebe et al, 2005) 2.1 Functions of Piles The purposes of pile foundations are: to transmit a foundation load to a solid ground. to resist vertical, lateral and uplift load. â€Å"A structure can be founded on piles if the soil immediately beneath its base does not have adequate bearing capacity. If the results of site investigation show that the shallow soil is unstable and weak or if the magnitude of the estimated settlement is not acceptable a pile foundation may become considered. Further, a cost estimate may indicate that a pile foundation may be cheaper than any other compared ground improvement costs. Piles can also be used in normal ground conditions to resist horizontal loads. Piles are a convenient method of foundation for works over water, such as jetties or bridge piers.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide, by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith, 2003). 2.2 Classification of Piles 2.2.1 Classification of pile with respect to load transmission End-bearing. Friction-piles. Mixture of cohesion piles friction piles. 2.2.1.1 End bearing piles This type of piles is designed to transfer the structural load to a stable soil layer which is found at a greater depth below the ground. The load bearing capacity of this stratum is found by the soil penetration resistance from the pile-toe (as in figure 1.2.1.1). The pile normally has attributes of a normal column, and should be designed as per the guidelines. The pile will not collapse in a weak soil, and this should be studied only if a part of the given pile is unsupported. (Eg: If it is erected on water / air). Load transmission occurs through cohesion / friction, into the soil. At times, the soil around the pile may stick to the pile surface and starts â€Å"negative skin friction†. This phenomenon may have an inverse effect on the pile capacity. This is mainly caused due to the soil consolidation and ground water drainage. The pile depth is determined after reviewing the results from the soil tests and site investigation reports. 2.2.1.2 Friction piles (cohesion) The bearing capacity is calculated from the soil friction in contact with the pile shaft. (as in Figure 1.2.1.2). 2.2.1.3 Mixture of cohesion piles friction piles. This is an extended end-bearing pile, when the soil underneath it is not hard, which bears the load. The pile is driven deep into the soil to create efficient frictional resistance. A modified version of the end-bearing pile is to have enlarged bearing base on the piles. This can be achieved by immediately pushing a large portion of concrete into the soft soil layer right above the firm soil layer, to have an enlarged base. Similar result is made with bored-piles by creating a bell / cone at the bottom by the means of reaming tools. Bored piles are used as tension piles as they are provided with a bell which has a high tensile-strength. (as in figure 1.2.1.3) 2.3 Cast-in-Place Pile Foundation Cast-in-place piles are installed by driving to the desired penetration a heavy-section steel tube with its end temporarily closed. A reinforcing cage is next placed in a tube which is filled with concrete. The tube is withdrawn while placing the concrete or after it has been placed. In other types of pile, thin steel shells or precast concrete shells are driven by means of an internal mandrel, and concrete, with or without reinforcement, is placed in the permanent shells after withdrawing the mandrel. 2.3.1 Advantages Length of the pile can be freely altered to cater varying ground conditions. Soil removed during the boring process can be verified and further tests can be made on it. Large diameter installations are possible. End enlargements up to two or three diameters are possible in clays. Pile materials are independent during driving / handling. Can be installed to greater depths in the soil. Vibration-free and noise-free while installation. Can be installed in conditions of very low headroom. Ground shocks are completely nil. 2.3.2 Disadvantages Susceptible to necking or wasting in pressing ground. Concrete is not pumped under suitable conditions and cannot be inspected. The cement on the pile shaft will be washed up, if there is a sudden surge of waster from any pressure caused underground. Special techniques need to be used to ensure enlarged pile ends. Cannot be easily prolonged above ground-level especially in river and marine structures. Sandy soils may loosen due to boring methods and base grouting may be required for gravely soils to improve base resistance. Sinking piles may result in ground-loss, leading to settlement of nearby structures. CHAPTER 3 3 Load Distribution To a great extent the design and calculation (load analysis) of pile foundations is carried out using computer software. The following calculations are also performed, assuming the following conditions are met: The pile is rigid. The pile is pinned at the top and at the bottom. Each pile receives the load only vertically (i.e. axially applied). The force P acting on the pile is proportional to the displacement U due to compression. Therefore, P = k U Since P = E A E A = k U k = (E A ) / U Where: P = vertical load component k = material constant U = displacement E = elastic module of pile material A = cross-sectional area of pile (Figure 3 load on single pile) The length L should not necessarily be equal to the actual length of the pile. In a group of piles. If all piles are of the same material, have same cross-sectional area and equal length L, then the value of k is the same for all piles in the group 3.1 Pile foundations: vertical piles only 3.1.1 Neutral axis load The pile cap is causing the vertical compression U, whose magnitude is equal for all members of the group. If Q (the vertical force acting on the pile group) is applied at the neutral axis of the pile group, then the force on a single pile will be as follows: Pv = Q / n Where Pv = vertical component of the load on any pile from the resultant load Q n = number of vertical piles in the group (see figure 3.1.2) Q = total vertical load on pile group 3.1.2 Eccentric Load If the same group of piles are subjected to an eccentric load Q which is causing rotation around axis z (see fig 3.1b); then for the pile i at distance rxi from axis z: Ui = rxi . tanÃŽ ¸ ∠´ Ui = rxi ÃŽ ¸ => Pi = k . r xi . ÃŽ ¸ ÃŽ ¸ is a small angle ∠´ tanÃŽ ¸ ≈ ÃŽ ¸ (see figure 3.1.2). Pi = force (load on a single pile i). Ui = displacement caused by the eccentric force (load) Q. rxi = distance between pile and neutral axis of pile group. rxi positive measured the same direction as e and negative when in the opposite direction. e = distance between point of intersection of resultant of vertical and horizontal loading with underside of pile. (Figure 3.1.2 – Example of a pile foundation – vertical piles) The sum of all the forces acting on the piles should be zero ⇔ ⇔ Mxi = Pi . rxi = k . rxi . ÃŽ ¸ rxi = k . ÃŽ ¸ r2xi => => Mxi = From previous equation, Mz = ÃŽ £Mz Applying the same principle, in the x direction we get equivalent equation. If we assume that the moment MX and MZ generated by the force Q are acting on a group of pile, then the sum of forces acting on a single pile will be as follows: If we dividing each term by the cross-sectional area of the pile, A, we can establish the working stream ÏÆ': CHAPTER 4 4 Load on Pile 4.1 Introduction â€Å"Piles can be arranged in a number of ways so that they can support load imposed on them. Vertical piles can be designed to carry vertical loads as well as lateral loads. If required, vertical piles can be combined with raking piles to support horizontal and vertical forces.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) â€Å"Often, if a pile group is subjected to vertical force, then the calculation of load distribution on single pile that is member of the group is assumed to be the total load divided by the number of piles in the group.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) However, if a given pile group is subjected to eccentric vertical load or combination of lateral vertical load that can start moment force. Proper attention should be given during load distribution calculation. 4.2 Pile Arrangement â€Å"Normally, pile foundations consist of pile cap and a group of piles. The pile cap distributes the applied load to the individual piles which, in turn, transfer the load to the bearing ground. The individual piles are spaced and connected to the pile cap. Or tie beams and trimmed in order to connect the pile to the structure at cut-off level, and depending on the type of structure and eccentricity of the load, they can be arranged in different patterns.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith) (Figure 2.2 Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide by Ascalew Abebe Dr Ian GN Smith)) In this section, considering pile/soil interaction, calculations on the bearing capacity of single piles subjected to compressive axial load has been described. During pile design, the following factors should be taken into consideration: Pile material compression and tension capacity. Deformation area of pile, bending moment capacity. Condition of the pile at the top and the end of the pile. Eccentricity of the load applied on the pile. Soil characteristics. Ground water level. 4.3 The behaviour of piles under load Piles are designed in line with the calculations based on load bearing capacity. It is based on the application of final axial-load, as per the given soil conditions at the site, within hours after the installation. This ultimate load capacity can be determined by either: The use of empirical formula to predict capacity from soil properties determined by testing. or Load test on piles at the site. When increasing compressive load is applied on the pile, the pile soil system reacts in a linear elastic way to point A on the above figure (load settlement). The pile head rebounds to the original level if the load realises above this point. â€Å"When the load is increase beyond point A there is yielding at, or close to, the pile-soil interface and slippage occurs until point B is reached, when the maximum skin friction on the pile shaft will have been mobilised. If the load is realised at this stage the pile head will rebound to point C, the amount of permanent settlement being the distance OC. When the stage of full mobilisation of the base resistance is reached (point D), the pile plunges downwards without any farther increase of load, or small increases in load producing large settlements.† (Pile Foundation Design: A Student Guide). 4.4 Geotechnical design methods In order to separate their behavioural responses to applied pile load, soils are classified as either granular / noncohesive or clays/cohesive. The generic formulae used to predict soil resistance to pile load include empirical modifying factors which can be adjusted according to previous engineering experience of the influence on the accuracy of predictions of changes in soil type and other factors such as the time delay before load testing. From figure 4.1b, the load settlement response is composed of two separate components, the linear elastic shaft friction Rs and non-linear base resistance Rb. The concept of the separate evaluation of shaft friction and base resistance forms the bases of static or soil mechanics calculation of pile carrying capacity. The basic equations to be used for this are written as: Q = Qb + Qs Wp Rc = Rb + Rs Wp Rt = Rs + Wp Where: Q = Rc = the ultimate compression resistance of the pile. Qb = Rb = base resistance. Qs = Rs = shaft resistance. Wp = weight of the pile. Rt = tensile resistance of pile. In terms of soil mechanics theory, the ultimate skin friction on the pile shaft is related to the horizontal effective stress acting on the shaft and the effective remoulded angle of friction between the pile and the clay and the ultimate shaft resistance Rs can be evaluated by integration of the pile-soil shear strength Ï€a over the surface area of the shaft. Ï„a = Ca + ÏÆ' n tanφ a Where: ÏÆ'n = Ks ÏÆ'v ∠´ Ï„a = Ca + KS ÏÆ'v tanφa where: p = pile perimeter L = pile length φ = angle of friction between pile and soil Ks = coefficient of lateral pressure The ultimate bearing capacity, Rb, of the base is evaluated from the bearing capacity theory: Ab = area of pile base. C = undrained strength of soil at base of pile. NC = bearing capacity factor. CHAPTER 5 5 Calculating the resistance of piles to compressive loads 5.1 Cast in Place Piles – Shaft resistance These piles are installed by drilling through soft overburden onto a strong rock the piles can be regarded as end-bearing elements and their working load is determined by the safe working stress on the pile shaft at the point of minimum cross-section, or by code of practice requirements. Bored piles drilled down for some depth into weak or weathered rocks and terminated within these rocks act partly as friction and partly as end-bearing piles. The author Duncan C. Wyllie, gives a detailed account of the factors governing the development of shaft friction over the depth of the rock socket. The factors which govern the bearing capacity and settlement of the pile are summarized as the following: The length to diameter ratio of the socket. The strength and elastic modulus of the rock around and beneath the socket. The condition of the side walls, that is, roughness and the presence of drill cuttings or bentonite slurry. Condition of the base of the drilled hole with respect to removal of drill cuttings and other loose debris. Layering of the rock with seams of differing strength and moduli. Settlement of the pile in relation to the elastic limit of the side-wall strength. Creep of the material at the rock/concrete interface resulting in increasing settlement with time. The effect of the length/diameter ratio of the socket is shown in Figure 5.1a, for the condition of the rock having a higher elastic modulus than the concrete. It will be seen that if it is desired to utilize base resistance as well as socket friction the socket length should be less than four pile diameters. The high interface stress over the upper part of the socket will be noted. The condition of the side walls is an important factor. In a weak rock such as chalk, clayey shale, or clayey weathered marl, the action of the drilling tools is to cause softening and slurrying of the walls of the borehole and, in the most adverse case, the shaft friction corresponds to that typical of a smooth-bore hole in soft clay. In stronger and fragmented rocks the slurrying does not take place to the same extent, and there is a tendency towards the enlargement of the drill hole, resulting in better keying of the concrete to the rock. If the pile borehole is drilled through soft clay this soil may be carried down by the drilling tools to fill the cavities and smear the sides of the rock socket. This behaviour can be avoided to some extent by inserting a casing and sealing it into the rock-head before continuing the drilling to form the rock socket, but the interior of the casing is likely to be heavily smeared with clay which will be carried down by the drilling tools into the rock socket. As mentioned in Duncan C. Wyllie, suggests that if bentonite is used as a drilling fluid the rock socket shaft friction should be reduced to 25% of that of a clean socket unless tests can be made to verify the actual friction which is developed. It is evident that the keying of the shaft concrete to the rock and hence the strength of the concrete to rock bond is dependent on the strength of the rock. Correlations between the unconfined compression strength of the rock and rock socket bond stress have been established by Horvarth(4.50), Rosenberg and Journeaux(4.51), and Williams and Pells(4.52). The ultimate bond stress, fs, is related to the average unconfined compression strength, quc, by the equation: Where ÃŽ ± = reduction factor relating to, quc as shown in Figure 5.1b ÃŽ ² = correction factor associated with cut-off spacing in the mass of rock as shown in Figure 5.1c. The curve of Williams and Pells in Figure 5.1b is higher than the other two, but the ÃŽ ² factor is unity in all cases for the Horvarth and the Rosenberg and Journeaux curves. It should also be noted that the ÃŽ ± factors for all three curves do not allow for smearing of the rock socket caused by dragdown of clay overburden or degradation of the rock. The ÃŽ ² factor is related to the mass factor, j, which is the ratio of the elastic modulus of the rock mass to that of the intact rock as shown in Figure 5.1d. If the mass factor is not known from loading tests or seismic velocity measurements, it can be obtained approximately from the relationships with the rock quality designation (RQD) or the discontinuity spacing quoted by Hobbs (4.53) as follows: 5.2 End Bearing Capacity Sometimes piles are driven to an underlying layer of rock. In such cases, the engineer must evaluate the bearing capacity of the rock. The ultimate unit point resistance in rock (Goodman, 1980) is approximately. N = tan2 (45 + / 2) qu = unconfined compression strength of rock = drained angle of friction Table 5.2a Table 5.2b The unconfined compression strength of rock can be determined by laboratory tests on rock specimens collected during field investigation. However, extreme caution should be used in obtaining the proper value of qu, because laboratory specimens usually are small in diameter. As the diameter of the specimen increases, the unconfined compression strength decreases a phenomenon referred to as the scale effect. For specimens larger than about 1 m (3f) in diameter, the value of qu remains approximately constant. There appears to be fourfold to fivefold reduction of the magnitude of qu in the process. The scale effect in rock is caused primarily by randomly distributed large and small fractures and also by progressive ruptures along the slip lines. Hence, we always recommend that: The above table (Table 5.2a) lists some representative values of (laboratory) unconfined compression strengths of rock. Representative values of the rock friction angle are given in the above table (Table 5.2b). A factor of safety of at least 3 should be used to determine the allowable point bearing capacity of piles. Thus: CHAPTER 6 6 Pile Load Test (Vesic’s Method) A number of settlement analysis methods for single piles are available. These methods may be broadly classified into three categories: Elastic continuum methods Load–transfer methods Numerical methods Examples of such methods are the elastic methods proposed by Vesic (1977) and Poulos and Davis (1980), the simplified elastic methods proposed by Randolph and Wroth (1978) and Fleming et al. (1992), the nonlinear load–transfer methods proposed by Coyle and Reese (1966) and McVay et al. (1989), and the numerical methods based on advanced constitutive models of soil behaviour proposed by Jardine et al. (1986). In this paper, three representative methods are adopted for the calibration exercise: the elastic method proposed by Vesic (1977), the simplified analysis method proposed by Fleming et al. (1992), and a nonlinear load–transfer method (McVay et al. 1989) implemented in program FB-Pier (BSI 2003). In Vesic’s method, the settlement of a pile under vertical loading, S, includes three components: S = S1 + S2 + S3 Where: S1 is the elastic pile compression. S2 is the pile settlement caused by the load at the pile toe. S3 is the pile settlement caused by the load transmitted along the pile shaft. If the pile material is assumed to be elastic, the elastic pile compression can be calculated by: S1 = (Qb + ÃŽ ¾Qs)L / (ApEp) Where Qb and Qs are the loads carried by the pile toe and pile shaft, respectively; Ap is the pile cross-section area; L is the pile length; Ep is the modulus of elasticity of the pile material; and ÃŽ ¾ is a coefficient depending on the nature of unit friction resistance distribution along the pile shaft. In this work, the distribution is assumed to be uniform and hence ÃŽ ¾ = 0.5. Settlement S2 may be expressed in a form similar to that for a shallow foundation. S2 = (qbD / Esb) (1-v2)Ib Where: D is the pile width or diameter qb is the load per unit area at the pile toe qb = Qb /Ab Ab is the pile base area Esb is the modulus of elasticity of the soil at the pile toe Ñ µ is Poisson’s ratio Ib is an influence factor, generally Ib = 0.85 S3 = (Qs / pL) (D / Ess) (1 – Ñ µ2) Is Where: p is the pile perimeter. Ess is the modulus of elasticity of the soil along the pile shaft. Is is an influence factor. The influence factor Is can be calculated by an empirical relation (Vesic 1977). Is = 2 + 0.35 √(L/D) With Vesic’s method, both Qb and Qs are required. In this report, Qb and Qs are obtained using two methods. In the first method (Vesic’s method I), these two loads are determined from a nonlinear load–transfer method, which will be introduced later. In the second method (Vesic’s method II), these two loads are determined using empirical ratios of Qb to the total load applied on pile Q based on field test data. Shek (2005) reported load–transfer in 14 test piles, including 11 piles founded in soil and 3 piles founded on rock. The mean ratios of Qb /Q for the piles founded in soil and the piles founded on rock are summarized in Table 3 and applied in this calibration exercise. The mean values of Qb /Q at twice the design load and the failure load are very similar. Hence, the average of the mean values is adopted for calibration at both twice the design load and the failure load. In the Fleming et al. method, the settlement of a pile is given by the following approximate closed-form solution (Fleming et al. 1992): Where: n = rb / r0, r0 and rb are the radii of the pile shaft and pile toe, respectively (for H-piles, Ï€ro2 = Ï€rb2 = Dh, h is the depth of the pile cross-section) ÃŽ ¾G = GL/Gb, GL is the shear modulus of the soil at depth L, and Gb is the shear modulus of the soil beneath the pile toe. Ï  = Gave/GL, Gave is the average shear modulus of the soil along the pile shaft p is the pile stiffness ratio p = Ep / GL; ÃŽ ¶ = ln{[0.25 +(2.5Ï (1 – v) –0.25) ÃŽ ¾G] L/r0}; É ¥L = (2/)1/2(L/r0). If the slenderness ratio L/r0 is less than 0.5p1/2 (L/r0) the pile may be treated as effectively rigid and eq. [7] then reduces to: If the slenderness ratio L/r0 is larger than 3Ï€p1/2, the pile may be treated as infinitely long, and eq. [7] then reduces to: In this case, GL’ is the soil shear modulus at the bottom of the active pile length Lac, where Lac = 3r0p1/2. In the nonlinear load–transfer method implemented in FB-Pier, the axial –Z curve for modelling the pile–soil interaction along the pile is given as (McVay et al. 1989)